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Full text of "The Plough, the loom and the anvil"

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AMBRICAN FAHMBaS* MAGAZINE. 



Vol. XI. 



JANUARY, 1858. 



No. 1. 



|i g r i ni 1 1 u r a L 



THE NEW YEAR. 

While tendering to our readers the 
congratulations of the season, and wish- 
ing as wo heartily do, that their coming 
year may be a happy and prosperous one, 
we do not forget that, in the relation we 
sustain to them, something depends upon 
us. 

If we discharge our duties with a 
sound judgment, and a heart in sympa- 
thy with their avocation, knowing as we 
do its difficulties, and having experienced 
its pleasures, they can hardly fail to de- 
rive from our labors some increase of 
material wealth, but more we would fain 
hope of intellectual riches, and still more 
of those pleasures which are derived 
from seeing their children advancing in 
knowledge and goodness. 

On the contrary, we are equally aware, 
that if our writings should be ill-judged 
and untimely, supercilious and arrogant, 
pretending rather than reliable, in no 
soulful sympathy with the working 
farmer, dropped along the track of the 
coming year in a care-for-nobody spirit, 
or with a manifested preference for men 
of any and all other callings over the 
producer from the soil, they would be 

VOU XI. 1 



loosers rather than gainers, in whatever 
goes to make up the sum of their happi- 
ness. It would not be for their interest 
to read us through the year, and pro- 
bably they would not. 

There is a middle ground. If our 
articles should be pretty good, but no 
better than are found every where ; if 
our selections should be well enough, but 
such that you would say they might be 
a great deal better ; if our whole journal 
should be made up of negative excellen- 
cies, faultless and nothing more, it would 
contribute no great to the material, in- 
tellectual, or social welfare of our readers, 
and might possibly damage them by dis- 
placing one of a more positive character. 

It is not b}' an Agricultural Journal of 
medium qualities, faultless without ex- 
cellence ; and certainly it is not by one 
of positively bad characteristics, untrue 
in its teachings, and unsympathizing to- 
wards the farmer, that the great cause 
of soil culture, with profit, and honor, 
and happiness to the cultivator, can be 
advanced. And yet to advance this 
cause is to advance the cause of imiver- 
sal humanity ; for it is impossible that 
our country should make progress in 
this line and the whole world not par- 



AGRICULTURAL 



ticipate, at no ver}'^ distant day, in the 
benefits. 

If a higher civilization is to dawn on 
mankind, and if Christianity is yet to 
have a more perfect work, in both of 
which we believe, agriculture, to which 
the Creator has destined at least half the 
human family, must be honored in the 
hearts of all men, and not merely by 
the words of the wily politician when 
he wants the farmer's vote. Improved 
methods must be spread abroad. New 
methods must be introduced. We are 
not at the end of all improvement yet. 
Brain work and labor-saving improve- 
ments must relieve the severity of toil. 
Farm work must not be a working of the 
body at the expense of the mind, but a 
business concern that makes both mind 
and body strong and active. 

One half of our community should be 
farmers, and every one of them proud 
that he is. A very large portion of the 
other half should be mechanics, and not 
a whit ashamed of it. Neither should 
be in danger of hearing it said, or seeing 
it acted, he's nothing but a farmer ; he's 
nothing but a mechanic — mere workies, 
and nothing more. As these two classes 
create all the wealth, they should possess 
a pretty good share of it. They need 
merchants and bankers enough to help 
in their exchanges, but not enough to 
rule and ruin them. Merchants, clergy- 
men, lawyers, doctors, teachers, are all 
wanted; but in a well-regulated com- 
munity they would not all together con- 
stitute more than one in a hundred. If 
one merchant could not make the ex- 
changes for a thousand people, and one 
minister do their preaching, and one law- 
yer their quarreling, and one doctoi- 
their healing, and half-a-dozen teachers 
dispel their ignorance, it must be because 
there is something wrong. 

The great mass should be employed 
either in drawing raw materials from the 
earth, or in molding them into forms of 
additional utiUty by their handiwork. 
Above all things it should be no detri- 



ment to any one to be so employed, and 
yet it will be till more live by their in- 
dustries and less live out of them. 
There is, however, no use in scolding. 
If there is " a good time coming," it 
will be brought about by improvements 
in the condition of those who do the 
real, necessary business of the world. 
First on the list are the farmers. In the 
inauguration and carrying on of improve- 
ments nearly every thing depends upon 
themselves. If they are to have a good 
year of this 1858, they, with the blessing 
of God, must make it so. 

So far as the peculiar duties of the 
agricultural Editor are concerned, we are 
fully convinced that no wrong side Jour- 
nal will answer their purpose. No half- 
way teachings will do them much good. 
They want the best, and it is no easy 
task to furnish it. We enter upon the 
new year with earnest purpose, but not 
without misgivings. Our purpose is to 
give our readers a better Journal than at 
any former time ; to furnish well-con- 
sidered, reliable articles on all the lead- 
ing questions of farming, gardening, 
fruit culture, stock-growing, and dairy- 
ing ; to adorn our pages more than here- 
tofore with such engravings as may 
illustrate the subjects and thus be of 
practical utility ; to give our full share 
of mechanical matter, and to select with 
reference to its usefulness to the farmer 
as well as to the mechanic ; and to en- 
liven our miscellaneous pages with a 
variety that shall be at once amusing and 
instructive. We hope to enlist the in- 
terest of young men in our scientific 
articles, and shaU hope to give the chil- 
dren occasional amusement, and perhaps 
some words of kindly advice, that may 
aid their mothers in training them to 
virtue and usefulness. 

Such are our purposes, such our hopes; 
and although we have our fears, we con- 
tinue our labors with a full conviction 
of their importance, and a determination 
to do what in us lies to advance the pros- 
perity and happiness of our readers for 
the year to come. — Ed. 



AGRICULTURAL. 



HINTS FOR THE SEASON. 

There is little farm work on hand fur 
this month. If the fanner takes a kindly 
care for all around him, keeping every- 
thing in an orderly, thriving condition, 
laying his plans for the future, and mak- 
ing such provision for their prosecution 
as can be made now to better advantage 
than at any future time, it is about as 
much as should be expected, and if any 
man living has a right to pause in the 
bustle of life and take comfort, he has. 

Self culture is the first duty of all. 
Now is the time when the farmer, if he 
seizes the golden opportunity, may out- 
strip men in almost any other calling. 
The stormy days and long evenings of 
winter are his by a peculiar right. They 
are a boon which he should value. The 
lawyer, the merchant, and even the me- 
chanic may become moi'e flippant, but 
the farmer should Iciioic more than either, 
and if true to himself he will. 

Attend the evening lectures if you 
have any ; and if you have none, be not 
backward in helping to get them up. 
Read j^our agricultural and other papers ; 
and, more than tbis, read works on his- 
tory, art, science, literature, political 
economy, etc.; and learn not only the 
duties of your own calling, but whatever 
will make you an intelligent, influential, 
and useful citizen. You are the cultiva- 
tor of the earth ; you make it more 
beautiful and more productive ; we sup- 
pose you are improving everything about 
you ; and if so, all praise is due ; but do 
not neglect yourself. 

Next is your fomily. Is everything 
done for their comfort, for their advance- 
ment in knowledge, for their present and 
permanent well-being? It would be 
well for you to look into the school, and 
see that your children arc making pro- 
gress. Of course you will tak" them to 
the lectures with you. AVHiy should you 
not take them to the formers' club? 
Young people are social in their feelings, 
and it is well that they are, and you 
should encourage them in all rational 



and innocent pleasures. If j^ou will pre- 
pare yourself to speak at your evening 
gatherings, it will do you good as well 
as others, and why not encourage your 
sons to take a part? A little study and 
a little practice may prepare them to 
take a high and useful position as citi- 
zens of this free country. By all means, 
encourage j'our sons and daughters to 
read, and if possible, amid the trashy 
literature of the times, persuade them to 
read .such books as will make them ac- 
quainted, not with mere fancy worlds, 
but with the veritable world we inhabit, 
and make them better men and women, 
to enact a part in this same world. 

See that the stalls, the folds, and the 
pens are all warm ; that no feed is wasted, 
either by being trodden under foot, or 
by being devoured by animals so uncom- 
fortably cold that the whole goes to keep 
them from freezing, and none to produce 
growth. Above all let the animals that 
give milk be warm, and give them plenty 
of succulent food. How can the pail be 
filled, or how can the .suckling young 
thrive, if the mother be not kindly dealt 
by ? Every farmer knows, or should, 
that there is more profit, twice told, in 
keeping a milk cow, or a suckling ani- 
mal of any kind, well, than by inferior 
care. 

The old wood pile, we hope, will not 
be gone till May ; but early, before the 
snow drifts, is the best time to get up 
the next year's stock. What a bother, 
when the plow should be going, to have 
a child come and tell you that oven wood 
is wanted! To have the dinner half 
cooked for the want of well-dried wood 
is almost as bad. There is no surer sign 
of a good farmer, to say nothing of a 
good husband and father, than never to 
be out of dry wood. 

Fencing stufi^, in many cases, can be 
removed advantaguouslj'^ in January ; 
and if there is lumber to be got to the 
sawmill, the first snows arc the best. 
Other things will suggest themselves to 
the enterprising fanner. Nothing is 



AGRICULTURAL, 



better settled, than that such a farmer 
never finds a time when there is " noth- 
ing to do." It is only the shabby farm- 
er that can find no work. 

But our object was rather to call at- 
tention to the great importance of self- 
culture and the comfort and improve- 
ment of the family. Winter is the har- 
vest time for those things. The farmers 
of our country should strive to be equal 
— superior if they can — to any other 
class. 

Let not this winter go by without a 
step towards a consummation so devout- 
ly, so patriotically to be wished. Push 
yourself on the race, start your children 
on the race early. — Ed. 



INTRODUCTION OF MERINO 

SHEEP INTO THE UNITED 

STATES. 

BY CASTIGATOR. 

S. G. Goodrich, alias Peter Parley, 
feeling that he must needs write a book, 
appeared to think that he could make 
said book by writing down all that he 
could recollect of a life time, but failing 
in obtaining the requisite amount of ma- 
terial, he was driven to the pitiable alter- 
native, as we find on page 404, Vol. I, of 
his Recollections of a Life Time, of quot- 
ing from the Cyclopaedia of American 
Literature, a work of no authority, a 
statement with regard to the introduc- 
tion of merino sheep into this country, 
which he should have known was not in 
accordance with facts, viz. : " The first 
merino sheep brought into the United 
States were imported by Chancellor Ro- 
bert R. Livingston — a pair of each sex — 
in 1802. M. Delessert sent a few others 
soon after. Little attention, however, 
was paid to the subject, and it seems 
that about 1805 half-breeds were sold at 
a price below that of common sheep. 
Afterwards a larger importation was 
made by Col. Humphreys, who had been 
our minister to Spain and our Consul 
Jarvis ; these were three hundred in 
number and arrived in 1810." 



Why did not Goodrich, when his re- 
collections failed, refer us to some relia- 
ble statement from Livingston, showing 
the month and day when his " pair of 
each sex'"' were introduced ? Why did 
he not refer to Humpi'eys' works, pub- 
lished in New-York in 1804, and which 
are in all our libraries, and give us the 
true state of the case ? There he would 
see in a dissertation on the merino sheep, , 
dated Boston, August 25th, 1802, the 
following, which I extract from page 
349 : " Convinced that this race of sheep, 
of which / believe not one (surply he had 
an opportunity of knowing) had been 
brought to the United States until the 
importation by myself, might be intro- 
duced with great benefit to our country, 
I contracted with a person of the most 
respectable character, to deliver to me at 
Lisbon, one hundred, composed of 
twenty-five rams and seventy-five ewes, 
ft'om one to two years old. They were 
conducted with proper passports across 
the country of Portugal by three Span- 
ish shepherds, and escorted by a small 
guard of Portuguese soldiers. On the 
10th of April last they were embarked 
in the Tagus, on board the ship Perse- 
verance, of 250 tons, Caleb Coggeshall, 
master. In about fifty days twenty-one 
rams and seventy ewes were landed at 
Derby, in Connecticut, they having been 
shipped at New- York on board of a 
sloop destined to that river." 

On page 356 is an engraved copy of a 
gold medal inscribed, " Presented by the 
Massachusetts Society for Promoting Ag- 
riculture, to the Hon. David Humphreys, 
Esq., late minister to the Court of Mad- 
rid, as a testimony of respect for his pa- 
triotic exertions in importing into New- 
England 100 of the merino breed of 
sheep from Spain, to improve the breed 
of that useful animal in his own coun- 
try. 1802." 

It is a sad reflection that our American 
Literature is so unreliable, and that we 
have so much gossip garnered up and 
recollections unauthenticated, published 



AGRICULTURAL 



in our Cyclopaedias and filed away in 
our Historical Collections, to perplex 
and mislead our future historians. 



ORIGIN OF HUNGARIAN GRASS IN 
THIS COUNTRY. 

Ed. Pkairie Farmer: — Numerous in- 
quiries come to me about the Hungarian 
j^rass — so called — which has lately been 
introduced among our farmers, with such 
unparalleled success as a hay crop. 

I thought, perhaps, it might be of in- 
terest to some of your numerous readers, 
to have a little sketch of the history, 
character, and qualities of this grass. 
The seed was brought into this country 
about three years ago by some Hungari- 
an refugees, who were passing through 
to their settlement west of this place, and 
was highly recommended by them, and 
after two years' trial, became popular, 
and spread all over the country. 

It is a species of millet^ though differ- 
ent fiom any the farmers of this country 
are, or have been, acquainted with. The 
yield on our rich prairies is very heavy. 
The premium acre at our last country 
fair weighed eight tons and two hundred 
pounds of well cured hay. This grew j 
on fi'esh hazel brush land ; %'lb was the ' 
premium; other competitors came within 
a few hundred pounds of this weight. 
The average on our prairie lands is about 
five tons i)er acre. This grass is an an- 
nual, cultivated pretty much as oats, 
though somewhat later. Any time in 
May it does well here. One-third of a 
bushel per acre is about the proper quan- 
tity, covered very shallow, and harvested 
when the blades and head begin to turn 
yellow. Cutting time for this grass does 
not come on till the other harvest comes 
on. 

As hay, it is of very nutritous quality, 
and stock eat it with avidity, particular- 
ly, when the seed is on. It has a very 
heavy head of seed, and yields from fif- 
teen to twenty bushels per acre. Farm- 
ers tell me that horses will keep fot on 
it without any other grain, and do mod- 
erate work. — L. Phillips, i)i Prairie 
Farmer. 

EXTRACTS FROM A REPORT ON 
ASIATIC GOATS. 

ACCEPTED AND PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF 
THE SOCIETY, AT THEIR ANNUAL MEET- 
ING, OCTOBER, 1857. 

1. By a resolution of the Southern 



Central Agricultural Association, of 
Georgia, we were appointed on a Com- 
mittee to report on the Goats now in the 
possession of Richard Peters, Esq., and, 
in compliance, present the following re- 
port as the result of our investigations : 

2. Among all the domesticated animals 
introduced into our country, the Goat 
has hitherto been regarded as the least 
valuable. The several large breeds, such 
as the Scind, the ATaltese, and the Swiss 
Goats, which were, from time to time, 
introduced as milking animals, were, after 
some time, neglected and considered as 
of no great value, in comparison with 
the Cow, and we are not aware that their 
milk is converted into cheese in any por- 
tion of our country. The hair was too 
coarse for manufacturing purposes, and 
the flesh was considered inferior to that 
of veal or mutton ; hence the Goat was 
scarcely regarded as deserving of notice 
among the herds of the farmer. 

The wisdom of Providence has, how- 
ever, wisely so ordered it, that in all the 
species of animals intended for the use 
of man, distinct and permanent varieties 
are produced in difiFerent localities, which 
varieties, by proper attention, may be 
preserved for ages without change or 
deterioration. Breeds of Horses have 
been produced, adapted to the various 
necessities of man. The breeds that 
have originated from our domesticated 
horned cattle are equally varied and so 
organized as to minister to the wants of 
man in the different climates of the 
world. 

3. The Sheep, which in many of its 
varieties is a coarse wooled animal, has 
assumed various forms and infinite va- 
rieties in the flavor of its mutton — in its 
fleece and in its adaptation either to cold, 
temperate or tropical climates. In Africa 
and the West Indies, breeds have sprung 
up, called by some Nubian Sheep, whose 
wool has become converted into a short, 
coarse glossy hair. In the mountains 
of Spain and in Sa.xony, varieties of the 
same species produce the finest wool. 
These Merino and Saxon Sheep, having 
become permanent breeds, have retained 
their fine fleece in our country, during 
successive generations. 

4. The varieties of the Goat are equal- 
ly numerous and equally varied in 
different countries. They are all of 
one species, the varieties mixing and 
multiplying with each other ad in- 
finitum. They all claim as their ori- 
gin, the comm u Goat, (Capra hircus,) 



AGRICULTURAL. 



which it is admitted by nearly all relia- 
ble naturalists, derives its paientage 
from the wild Goat, (Capra asgagrus,) 
that still exists on the European Alps. 
Two individuals of this wild species 
lived for several years in the menagerie 
of Paris and exhibited all the manners 
of the common Goat. We have, on 
several occasions, seen herds of our com- 
mon Goats, that had strayed away and 
become wild; one of these might for 
several years have been seen on that 
wonderful production of nature, the Stone 
Mountain of Georgia. They evidenced 
all the peculiarities ascribed to the wild 
Goats of the Alps. A herd of these 
Goats exists on the precipitous side of 
Ben Nevis, in Scotland, and are describ- 
ed as still numerous on the rocky island 
of Juan Fernandez, which the fertile 
imagination of Defoe, by the aid of the 
narrative of Selkirk, has invested with 
such a fascinating romance. 

5. An animal so easdy reared and 
domesticated, must have been given to 
man by a beneficient Providence for a 
more valuable purpose than that of its 
very sparing portion of milk, and its 
rather inferior flesh. The Creator, who 
gave to our first parents the soil, with 
the command to "till" it, has also given 
to the animals that accompany him in 
his migrations over the earth, an organi- 
zation adapted to the production of im- 
proved and permanent varieties. These, 
when produced, it becomes the duty of 
man to increase and multiply. The in- 
dividual who does this, by the applica- 
tion of his time, his scientific knowledge, 
his labors or his wealth, carries out the 
designs of a superintending Providence, 
and becomes a public benefactor. . . . 

6. As we are obliged to regard the 
different breeds of animals by the names 
under which they are usually desigr-ated, 
we are not allowed to consider the Goats 
of Mr. Peters as the true cashmere. The 
two kinds of hair, with an under vest of 
delicate grayish wool which amounts 
only to two or three ounces on a well- 
grown animal — together with horns, not 
spiral, draw a broad line of separation 
between these probable crosses, and the 
far superior Goats of Mr. Peters. 

7. This animal differs also from the 
Angora Goat, to which it has a -nearer 
approach and from which this improved 
variety has probably descended. In the 
few specimens of the Angora Goat, 
which we saw many years ago in Europe, 
and in the figures now extant of this 



variety — the ears compared with those 
of the Goats of Mr. Peters were smaller 
and less pendulous, the tail was much 
longer, the neck was covered with a mane 
of almost straight hair, reaching the 
shoulders and uniting with the beard 
under the chin — the body was larger 
and more Goat-like, and had less the 
appearance of the Sheep than the present 
variety. The fleece was equally white 
and glossy, but more than double as 
coarse. By what local name this breed 
of Goats, owned by Mr. Peters, is called 
in the East remains for some future natu- 
ralist, or traveler to determine. . 
At present, we can only designate them 
by the general term, Asiatic Goats, or to 
be more definite, as the Davis Cashmere 
Goats, from the individual who intro- 
duced them. 

8. It yet remains for us to consider 
the most important subject connected 
with this report. What benefit mav 
our country be expected to derive from 
this breed of Goats? They were intro- 
duced into South Carolina in 1849, hav- 
ing been brought from Turkey, in Asia, 
by J. B. Davis, M. D. We examined 
these animals on their first arrival and 
pronounced them as destined to become 
a valuable acquisition to our country. 
We have since taken advantage of many 
opportunities, from time to time, of ascer- 
taining their adaptedness to our climate, 
and saw them recently at the farm of Mr. 
Peters, at Calhoun. We are much gi-ati- 
fied in stating that the I'esult has far ex- 
ceeded our most sanguine expectations. 
We will give the result of our inquiries 
and experience under several heads. 

9. Their Constitutional Characteria- 
tics and adaptedness to our Climate. — 
They appear to be remarkably well 
adapted to our climate, show no evidence 
of suffering, and do not pant like the 
Sheep during the warm weather of sum- 
mer, when the thermometer often risfs 
to 92°. In winter, when the thermome- 
ter sometimes sinks to zero, their woolly 
covering protects them from the cold, 
which they endure fully as well as do 
the Sheep. In the lower country of 
Carolina, during recent severe winters, 
we ascertained that many of the com- 
mon Goats (as far as we could learn, one- 
half of the whole stock) perished from 
cold ; the Asiatic Goats, however, did 
not appear to suffer the least inconven- 
ience. Kids were dropped in a snow 
bank, at Mr. Peters' farm in February, 
and sustained no injury. 



AGRICULTURAL 



10. Three of these Goats were kept 
during winter and summer near Utica, 
in central New- York, and three others, 
with their descendants, have remained 
near ILirper's Ferry, Virginia, since the 
autumn of 1854; all of them are doing 
well and have suffered no inconvenience 
either in winter or summer. This hardy 
disposition is imparted to the dilTerent 
grades, the half and three-quarter bloods, 
produced by an intermixture with the 
common Goat. They are all healthy. 
No disease has appeared among them, 
and there has not been a single sick 
goat or anj' death by disease among 
those originally imported, or in any of 
their descendants during the eight years 
since their introduction, 

11. The oldest imported female is now 
at least ten, probably eleven years old — 
she produces a kid every year, and now 
has at her side a very tine female kid, 
dropped on the tenth of March last — she 
is in tine order and looks as though she 
would breed for several years. The 
females are abundantly furnished with 
milk, and are excellent mothers, never 
losing their kids, they being strong when 
dropped, and able to suck in a few 
moments, the mother remaining over 
and about them for forty-eight hours, 
and afterwards always keeping a careful 
watch. The half breed ewes inherit 
from the Davis Goats this peculiar trait 
of character, being the very reverse of 
the common Goats in this particular, the 
latter, especially when bred in large 
herds, care little for their 3'oung, who 
are often left to die for want of nourish- 
ment, when a few hours old. 

12. The Increase. — This has been less 
than was at first anticipated. The fact 
of the common goat having two, and 
sometimes three young at a birth, and 
often two broods in a year, led manj^ 
persons to the conclusion that this new 
variety of goat would be equally prolific. 
In this, experience has now undeceived 
us. The animal produces young but 
once in a year, and only one kid at a 
birth. Mr. Peters received from Dr. 
Davis in December, 1856, eight females 
and two males — three of the females 
having been imported. There were in 
this number three small kids that failed 
to breed until two years old. From 
these females, Mr. Peters has raised 
twenty-one, twelve of which proved to 
be males and nine females. Thus it 
appears that the constitution of this 
variety, is organized like that of the 



wild goats (CaiEgagrus) which produces 
but one young annually. As, however, 
it produces young when fifteen months 
old, and continues to breed until over 
ten years of age, taking into considera- 
tion the strength and hardihood of the 
kids, we may safely consider it as equal 
to the French Merino sheep in the rapid- 
ity with whicli a flock may be bred and 
increased. There is, however, another 
mode, both natural and certain, by which 
this variety can be increased very rapid- 
ly. To this we will direct attention 
hereafter. 

13. The preiwnderance of young males 
over females. — It has frequently been 
remarked, that animals and poultry of 
various kinds brought from China and 
Western Asia, produce a much greater 
number of males than females. The 
only experiment we made was on the 
Shaughae fowl, which as long as we had 
an old male, produced, on an average, 
three or four male chickens to one fe- 
male. Since we have kept young males 
only, the sexes in their descendants are 
about equal. It was at one time feared 
that the experiments in the introduction 
of these goats would be greatly retarded 
from the fact that they produced ncai ly 
all males. The following memorandum 
may be of some service in the future 
propagators of this goat : 

14. In 1854, Dr. Davis used a two- 
year old buck to five ewes. The result 
was, two females and three males. In 
1855, Mr. Peters used the old imported 
buck to eight ewes ; the result was, two 
females and six males. In 1856, he used 
a buck kid of nine months old to six 
ewes; the result was four females to two 
males. In the same year he used the 
imported buck to two ewes ; the product 
was one mnle and one female. It will be 
a matter of interest to the physiologist 
to become acquainted with the result of 
a further continuance of these experi- 
ments. 

15. Their Food. — Like all species and 
varieties of Goats, they prefer weeds, 
briars and leaves, to glass. Mr. Peteis 
informed us that during the sunmier 
months they are a decided benefit to his 
grass lands, by feeding on, and finally 
destrojing, briars, weeds and bushes. 
They are especially fond of the leaves of 
young pines and cedars, both in sum- 
mer and winter; the balsomic character 
of which is gonducive to their health 
and thrift. During winter they should 
be fed like sheep, but do not require 



AGRICULTURA L 



much attention, except in snowy weather, 
as they are better able to shift for them- 
selves than the sheep. Mr. Peters ad- 
vises that during winter they should be 
divided into flocks of about one hundred, 
or less, as they butt each other at feed- 
ing time. 

16. Their Flesh as an article of Food. 
— We have never indulged in the ex- 
travagant luxury of feasting on a frill- 
blooded animal of this variety, but we 
have on several occasions made a hearty 
meal on the quarter, half or three-quar- 
ter bloods, and all who dined in com- 
pany pronounced the meat of the half- 
breed wethers superior to lamb, and at 
eighteen months old superior to mutton ; 
the flavor approaches nearer to venison 
than to mutton. They remain fat nearly 
throughout the year, and in November 
are almost too fat for the table. We 
observed a great improvement in the 
progeny of the full bloods over their 
imported parents, both in size and fat- 
ness. The weight of the buck is given 
as one hundred and fifty-five pounds, 
that of the doe one hundred and two. 

17. Their liaMlity to he destroyed T)y 
Dogs. — If this animal was as liable to be 
killed by dogs as the common sheep, we 
would ti'emble for the perpetuity of the 
race in our country. We have often 
lamented that no laws were enacted and 
enforced to prevent worthless curs from 
depopulating the valuable sheep of our 
country. Many a once sanguine raiser 
of choice breeds of imported sheep, has 
been caused to sigh over his massacred 
flock, and then abandoned the raising of 
sheep in despair. A flock of sheep 
when pursued by dogs scatter in every 
direction, and fall an easy prey to their 
relentless, blood-thirsty foe ; but when 
he approaches a herd of goats he finds 
them formed into a ring — the kids in the 
center and the old bucks in advance, 
exhibiting their formidable horns. No 
dog is bold enough to close in, but 
usually runs, barking, around the flock, 
thus attracting attention, and receiving 
the reward of his carnivorous designs. 
Mr. Peters informs us that he gave up 
the raising of sheep after having a dozen 
fine South-Downs killed by a pack of 
dogs, when they also destroyed four 
common ewe goats, but since there were 
no sheep on the farm to tempt the dogs, 
they have not come near the goats. Mr. 
Peters informs us that he has lost none 
of his goats, either of the pure breeds 
or the grades, by dogs. He further 



remarked that with a large herd he had 
no trouble. They have a range of two 
or thi-ee miles over fields and through 
woods ; they return every evening before 
sunset to their house, and in case of a 
shower of rain run to their shelter, even 
at the distance of several miles. He 
believes that a thousand or more would 
continue in fine condition during sum- 
mer and fall, in one flock, on a large 
range, as they are free irom disease, do 
not crowd together like sheep, or suffer 
from heat ; they are very easily driven 
and managed, and do not run off and 
get lost. 

18. — The Fleece. — The quantity shear- 
ed in April was from the bucks (aged) 
from five to seven pounds, and from the 
ewes from four to five pounds. Mr. 
Peters shears but once a year, but in- 
tends hereafter to shear the kids in 
September and again in April. 

19. In regard to the fineness of the 
fleece, we find a microscopic examina- 
tion of the hair of Asiatic goats, from 
the stock now owned by Mr. Peters, 
William P. Davenport, of Virginia, and 
Dr. Ambler, then of New-York, printed 
in the Patent Office Report for 1855, pp. 
57-59. The examinations were made 
by George 0. Schafier, M. D. He says, 
"the degree of fineness is abovit that of 
the finest Saxony wool." He gave also 
an outline from a " piece of shawl stuff 
imported from Calcutta, and said to be 
the finest ever brought into this country." 
He adds, "it is gratifying, then, to be 
assured that the fleece may be raised in 
this country with a fineness closely 
approximating to that which it has ever 
attained in Asia under the most favora- 
ble circumstances." 

20. We have lying before us specimens 
from the fleeces of several young Asiatic 
goats, which we have compared with 
the finest wool of the merino sheep, and 
find the former not only equal in fine- 
ness, but of far greater length. It must, 
however, be observed, that young ani- 
mals, at their first shearing only, present 
this remarkably fine fleece. In the old 
female it is a little coarser, and in the 
old males still more so. It is proposed 
by Mr. Peters to divide the fleeces of 
these goats at shearing time into classes, 
thus : 

Kids under a year old No. 1. 

Yearling ewes and yearling wethers. No. 2. 

Yearling bucks, old ewes No. 3. 

Aged bucks No. 4. 

21. The fleeces of old ewes and year- 



AGRICULTURAL 



9 



linp; bucks would answer for cloth of a 
valuable texture. The fleece of the 
yearlini^ is much finer than that of the 
old ewes ; and th.at of the kid is fine 
enough for the very finest shawls, and 
ought to be very valuable. There is a 
large class of fabrics for which these 
fleeces are peculiarly adapted, viz : Cam- 
let and worsted goods and ladies' fabrics, 
as shallics, mouslin delaines, gentlemen's 
clothing for summer wear, hosiery, &c., 
promising a beauty, strength, durability, 
luster and permanency of color, far supe- 
rior to the W(»ol of the sheep or the 
alpaca. The goat's hair is known to 
receive and retain the most brilliant 
coloring, which the hair of the sheep 
and the alpaca has not the property of 
retaining. 

22. From the characteristics exhibited 
by castrated animals, it is probable that 
the wool from a pure bred wether, alter- 
ed when quite young, would not become 
coarser after the first year, and the quan- 
titj' would certainly amount to eight or 
nine pounds. A member of our family 
has had in use for several years a pair 
of stockings from the wool of this goat, 
and they seem to be almost indestructi- 
ble. Mr. Peters has also had an excellent 
cloth spun and woven from it. 

28. The results of Breeding with the 
common Goat. — Familiar as we have 
been througa a long life with the changes 
produced by crosses jjmong varieties of 
domestic animals and poultry, there is 
one trait in these goats which is more 
strongly developed then in any other 
variety that we have ever known. We 
allude to the wonderful facility with 
which the young of the cross between 
the male of the Asiatic goat and the 
female of the common goat so readilj' 
assumes all the characteristics of the 
former. It is exceedingly difficult to 
change a breed that has become perma- 
nent in any of our domestic varieties, 
whether it be that of horses, cattle, 
sheep, or hogs, into another variety by 
the aid of the male of the latter. There 
is a tendency to run back into their 
oiiginal varieties, hence the objection to 
mixed breeds. But in the progeny of 
these Asiatic and common goats, nine- 
tenths of them exhibit the strongest 
tendency to adopt the characteristics of 
the male and to elevate themselves into 
the higher and nobler grade, as if 
ashamed of their coarse, dingy hair and 
musky aromatics, and desirous of wash- 
ing out the odorous perfume, and putting 



on the white livery of a more respectable 
race. 

24. Mr. Peters has not bred any quar- 
ter-breeds. He made wethers of all his 
half-breed males of 185(5, and sold his 
three-cpiarter blood rams. He now owns 
one hundred and fifty half-blood females, 
seventy-five three-qu-irter blood females, 
and six seven-eighths blood females. He 
has also four females three-quarters 
Asiatic and one-quarter Thibet shawl. 
There appears to be no improvement in 
this mixture with the shawl goat, over 
that produced by a union with the com- 
mon goat; indeed, the produrt which 
we saw in Charleston from what was 
called the Cashmere and the Asiatic goat, 
was decidedly inferior. 

The half-bloods, as we have stated, 
have an under coat of fine, downy wool, 
closely resembling and equal in quality 
and quantity to the fleece of the Thibet 
shawl goats imported into this country. 
The three-quarter breeds in midwinter 
show an under coat of greater quantity 
and length. In both grades, this under 
fur drops out in summer. The fifteen- 
sixteenths or one-sixteenth common 
goat resemble the Asiatic goat in quanti- 
ty and quality of fleece, and size of car- 
cass so closely that m'c found it impossi- 
ble to distinguish them from the fuU 
bloods. Another advantage is likely to 
result fi-om this admixture with the com- 
mon goat : the half-blood females produce 
two kids at abirth, and the three-quarter 
blood females generally, although not 
alwaj'S, two. Thus the breed maj'' be 
rendered more prolific. AVe here per- 
ceive in how short a period of time our 
whole race of now almost worthless goats 
may be converted into a breed valuable 
both for its flesh and its wool. 

25. The regions of our country to 
which they are best adapted. — There 
does not appear to be any part of the 
United States to which the constitution 
of this goat is not adapted. Damp 
climates, like England, where there arc 
almost daily drizzling rains, are injurious. 
This animal scarcely needs water. Wc 
were informed by Mr. Peters, that three 
of them remained in a lot, feeding on 
weeds and grass, without any water dur- 
ing three months and keeping in fine 
order. Our whole country is warm in 
sunnner, and portions of it very cold in 
winter. If this goat is constitutionally 
adapted to brave the cold of the stcpi)es 
of the eastern Caucassian, Himmaleh 
and Altaian Mountains, it would not 



10 



AGRICULTURAL. 



suffer (if fed in winter) in our coldest 
regions, and would thrive along all the 
sides of the Alleghany and Rocky 
Mountains. It has improved in the 
comparatively warm climate of Carolina. 
It would do well in the hilly country of 
the Carolinas and Georgia, many portions 
of which are now scarcely cultivated. 
The whole western country from Ne- 
braska down to Western Texas and New- 
Mexico, may be rendered a feeding ground 
for this wool-bearing goat. The moun- 
tain regions of Virginia, North Carolina, 
Kentucky, and Tennessee, will be found 
admirably adapted to the raising of large 
flocks of these goats and their crosses. 
The wild growth of the mountain sides, 
with the native grasses of the rich val- 
lej^s, will afford pasturage summer and 
winter at a trifling cost. The worn-out 
plantations and poor pine lands of the 
Carolinas and Georgia might be brought 
into requisition to supply meat for our 
markets, which, by many persons, would 
be preferred to venison. A single shep- 
herd could guard a flock of several 
thousands, more especially if he cdled 
to his assistance the large shepherd's 
dog, from the Swiss Mountains. They 
would not only astonish the marauding 
wolf, but his prowling relative, the cur. 

26. It is not imposf-ible, that among 
the many varieties of goats existing in 
the far distant, and almost inaccessible 
regions of the Eastern world, some breeds 
may yet exist more valuable to our 
country than this, but at present we 
know of none that can be compared 
with it. 

27. What improvement can he made 
in this 'breed of Ooats ? — Since it pos- 
sesses the characteristics of all the other 
domesticated animals, we have reason to 
believe that, by judicious breeding, and 
devoting to this subject the same atten- 
tion that breeders in England bestow on 
their horses, cattle, sheep, and swine, an 
equal number of improved varieties will 
be produced. We are at present unac- 
quainted with any superior variety of 
Goat with which this might be crossed 
to improve the fineness of the wool. Im- 
proved individuals, however, spring up 
in these varieties themselves, without 
any foreign admixture, and by selecting 
these, and separating them from the 
common stock, we have at once a new- 
breed, which soon becomes a permanent 
race. Let us in .these matters follow 
the teachings of nature in all her depart- 
ments. How w^ere the varieties of Sea 



Island cotton, of large rice, of prolific 
corn, wheat, &c., produced? A few 
stalks of these superior qualities were 
detected in the fields. 

28. Thus far, it was the free gift of a 
beneficent Creator. Man, his agent, now 
selected and cultivated them separate 
from all others. Thus a valuable variety 
was obtained, that may, by proper care, 
be perpetuated. In the Courrier des 
Etats Unis we have a long and interest- 
ing account of a merino sheep in France, 
which, instead of wool, produced fine 
silken hair. The breed was perpetuated, 
and goes under the name of Cashmere 
sheep. At the "universal exhibition," 
in Paris, it w^as affirmed by the examina- 
tors of one of the shawls, made from 
this hair, that " they found this (as they 
named it) native Cashmere as soft and 
as brilliant as the imported, and that it 
was superior to the latter on account of 
its regularity of detail." We notice in 
a paper called the Homestead, published 
in Hartford, Connecticut, October 25, 
1855, a translation of the article, and a 
note by the translator in which he states 
that in Barnwell, South Carolina, where 
merinoes had been acclimated, the pro- 
portion of these kinds of cashmere lambs 
were four out of five ; supposing the 
flock to be degenerating yearly, and their 
fleece of no value, they were handed 
over to the butcher. In this way many 
a good gift of Providence is cast away 
on account of man's want of knowledge 
and attention. 

29. Some instructive lessons in Phys- 
iology and Natural History, are taught 
us in our experience in reference to the 
History of this Goat. — Several learned 
writers, regarded as authority, have as- 
serted that these eastern goats, which so 
much resemble sheep, were the products 
of the sheep and the goat ; hence they 
asserted, that the views of naturalists in 
regard to species must be greatly modi- 
fied. For the last ten or twelve years 
persons, in several parts of the United 
States, have been engaged in efforts to 
produce an offspring from an association 
of the sheep and the goat, which we do 
not consider improbable, but which, if 
the experiment had been attended with 
success, would, we are confident, have 
proved a hybrid incapable of propaga- 
tion inter se. We have not yet heard 
of a single instance of offspring having 
been produced in the United States by 
these eflForts. Mr. Peters, who, at our 
request, instituted some experiments by 



AGRICULTURAL. 



11 



carefully rearing up a young male sheep, 
with several young female goats, informs 
us that they copulated readily, but not 
a single young was produced. We here 
learn that God only is the creator of 
species, and has drawn a barrier of sepa- 
ration which can not be overcome. 
Varieties may be crossed and improved 
by breeding with other varieties of the 
same species, but can not be improved 
by crossing with other species, since 
these, if produced, would be hybrids 
and incapable of perpetuating a race. 

30. Another writer was engaged in 
deciding on species by a microscopical 
examination of hair, and made the 
cashmere goat a new s])ecies from this 
test. If his supposed new species should 
not prove a cross, it may at least be seen 
now readily, the goats themselves are 
converting one species into another, and 
demolishing his whole visionary theory. 
Another theory, almost universally re- 
ceived by breeders, of stock since the 
days of "Walker's book on intermar- 
riage" — on " in-and-in breeding," &c., is 
likely to receive a considerable shock, as 
these experiments with the goats, and 
especially with the Brahmin breed of 
cattle, are in progress. Our doctrine is 
that relationship and blood, and " in-and- 
in breeding," as it is termed, has nothing 
to do with the deterit)ration of animals, 
but that this deterioration is the result 
of the constitutions having been formed 
in the same localities, and that the de- 
scendants of a single pair, if separated, 
and removed to other localities where, 
from food and climate, the constitution 
has undergone a change, and are then 
brought together, they would continue 
healthy and prolific till the end of time. 
It is the settled opinion of physiologists 
that from the changes which the bodies 
of men and animals are daily undergoing, 
not a particle of the original body or the 
blood remains after seven years. Thus, 
the Irishman who proclaimed himself a 
native .Vmerican on the strength of his 
having been seven years in America, was, 
in a physiological sense, not far out of 
the way. 

3L Dr. Davis brought a small number 
of goats to this country, some of which 
were born after he left Turkey, they 
must therefore be very closely related. 
This will apply still more nearly to the 
Brainnin cattle which he imported at the 
same time. We saw the original pair at 
the F]arl of Derby's at Knowesly, near 
Liverpool. There has been in-and-in 



breeding ever since. There is not one 
animal of this variety in America that 
has not descended from this single pair, 
which, as far as we can recollect, were 
brother and sister. They are scattered 
throughout the West, breeding as fast 
as cattle can breed, and we are assured 
that they have improved rather tlian 
deteriorated. The water Buffaloes, im- 
ported at the same time by Dr. Davis, 
and now multiplying among themselves, 
but not mixing with our common cattle, 
are progressing in their own natural way 
to overturn an erroneous theory. Single 
pairs of turkeys, ducks, or common 
fowls will stock a farm-yard and in time 
spread over a whole district or State. A 
single pair of tame pigeons from the 
same nest, brother and sister, will soon 
fill the pigeon-house and give no evidence 
of degeneracy or sterility, and a single 
pair of fish will stock a iish-pond. Give 
them healthy constitutions, by an occa- 
sional change of food and localities, and 
tliere will be no danger of degeneracy 
by " in-and-in breeding." We give the 
results of our own experiments pursued 
through a period of fifty years. Let 
these goats, cattle, &c., be bred in differ- 
ent localities, and let there be an occa- 
sional interchange, and we feel assured 
that there will be no deterioration in 
consequence of their close relationship. 

32. In conclusion, we may be asked, 
whether we are induced to believe tl,)at 
from the many good properties of this 
goat it will eventually supersede the 
sheep in husbandry ? We answer, cer- 
tainly not. A gift of Providence so 
valuable as the sheep, is not to be cast 
aside by any intruder on its rightful 
domains. The sheep and the goat have 
each their appropriate sphere in the 
economy of nature, and there are good 
properties in eacli that can not be sup- 
planted by the other. The Creator, in 
liis munilicent benevolence, has given a 
limited number of valuable domestic 
animals and poultry, grain.s, fruits, and 
vegetables to man — all capable of pro- 
ducing varieties and of accompanying 
him in his migrations over the world. 
Each has its hmits of usefulness, and one 
species can not intrude on the rights of 
the other. The maple tree of the North, 
and the sugar beet and Chinese sugar 
cane of more temperate climates, are ad- 
mii-able substitutes and of inmiense 
value. They are also well adapted to 
check the cupidity of speculators in 
syrups and sugars;" but they can not iu 



12 



AGRICULTURAL. 



the end demolish the great sweetner of 
the human palate of the world, the old 
tropical sugar cane. Cotton is at this 
time king, and is struggling, like Aaron's 
rod, to swallow all the lesser products 
of silk, flax and wool, but they are des- 
tined still to hold their place in the ar- 
ticles tha^ minister to man's comfort. 
The sheep will not be depressed in the 
scale of man's valuable commodities — the 
goat will only be elevated to the stan- 
dard to which it was designed to rise. 
Thus each product revolves in its own 
sphere like the lesser lights in the firma- 
nent, reflecting glory on their great 
Author and conferring benefits and bless- 
ings on hifn "who was created in his 
image and crowned with glory and 
honor." Respectfully submitted, 
John Bachman, 
Chairman of the Committee. 
We have published the foregoing, 
though of greater length than we like to 
present in a single article, for the sake 
of the valuable information it contains 
on an important subject, only regretting 
that our space does not allow us to give 
the full report, particularly the elaborate 
discussion of the committee, as to the 
breed of Mr. Peters' Goats. It would 
interest many of our readers had we 
made a place for it. But what we have 
puolished is perhaps of greater practical 
value. If more such reports as the one 
from which the above is taken were pub- 
ished — giving the results of patient, 
thorough examinations, it would be well 
for Agriculture. — Ed. 



PUBLIC LANDS FOR AGRICULTU- 
RAL EDUCATION. 

Incredible as it may seem, says a let- 
ter wr ter from Washington, in the N. 
Y. Everting Post, there is actually a 
prospect that the old States are going to 
share in the distribution of public lands. 
Mr. Morrill, of Vermont, introduced a 
bill to-day providing for a distinbution of 
public lands to the several States for the 
purpose of establishing agricultural col- 
leges, giving twenty thousand acres for 
each presidential elector to every State. 
Those States which have no public lands 
within their boundaries will receive land 
scrip, which can not be located in any 
.other State, but may be so located by 



any individual purchasing the scrip. The 
interest of the fund must be devoted to 
the maintenance of agricultural colleges, 
and to nothing else. A limited amount 
can be appropriated to the purchase of 
model farms, but not to the erection of 
buildings. Every State which accepts 
the trust must bind itself to protect it 
against contingencies. 

There are some four hundred colleges 
of this character in Europe, sustained 
and conducted wholly or in part by gov- 
ernment, and a desire to follow their ex- 
ample seems to have awakened simulta- 
neously in different States. The agricul- 
tural college of Michigan was the first 
one established on this continent, and is 
now in very successful and useful opera- 
tion, with more than one hundred stu- 
dents. There have been some organized 
in New- York, Pennsylvania and Mary- 
land, and will be opened in New-York 
and Pennsylvania next year. Virginia 
has also taken some steps towards es- 
tablishing one in the Old Dominion. 

A memoi'ial was presented to the last 
Congress by Washburn, of Illinois, ask- 
ing for an act like this of Mr. Morrill's. 
Michigan has asked for an appropriation 
of lands for her cohege. 

Prodigal grants of lands have been 
made to railroads in the new States, and 
to those States themselves, but with the 
exception of the grant of lands to sup- 
port the indigent insane, vetoed by 
Pierce, I believe that this bill is the only 
one for an equitable and comprehensive 
distribution to all the States in propor- 
tion to their population. 



SUBSOIL PLOUGING. 

BY AN OLD SUBSCRIBER. 

Much has been said and written upon 
subsoil ploughing, yet not half enough. 
For few are so difficult to eradicate as 
prejudices which are wholly devoid of 
truth for their foundation. And until 
the erroneous opinion entertained about 
disturbing subsoil be extinguished, no 
one deserving the name, in these days, 
of an agriculturist, can believe that 
he has done all the good he can to advance 
the interests of his favorite pursuit, un- 
less he has left no stone unturned to set 
people right upon the subject. 
Deep tillage is the essence of high farm- 



AGRICULTURAL, 



IS 



ing ; high forming is the perfection of 
farming. And the reason is, that by 
high farming a greater return is obtain- 
ed for the amount of capital and labor 
emploj'cd, than by any other means. 

It matters not how much land is culti- 
vated. That is not the question. Taken 
alone, the question which a farmer 
should ask is not, " how much land can 
I get?" but "how much land will the la- 
bor and capital I can command enaUe 
me to farm, so as to get the largest re- 
turn for that capital and labor V" 

The answer to the question should be 
divided into two parts. 1st. How to 
raise the greatest amount of crops. 2d. 
What those crops should be with refer- 
ence to the quality of that land and the 
market that is iu the locality availaile. 

It is the first part of this answer only 
that we have to consider in this article. 
A man, a horse, or an ox can only per- 
form a given amount of labor in a day. 
What that amount is, depends upon the 
physical powers of each. Any waste of 
expenditure of those powers is a loss of 
so much productive labor. This every 
farmer knows, and practises when he 
sends half a mile instead of ten miles for 
a load of manure. But the same thing, 
(that is a waste of labor,) occurs wher- 
ever more ground is gone over, or work- 
ed, whether with the plough or the har- 
row to raise a given crop, than is in 
truth needful to raise that crop. And 
every day's experience shows that this is 
a waste of labor that does not always 
occur in that light to the farmer. If a 
crop is got from two acres, that in quan- 
tity and quality could be got from one, 
not quite double, but nearly that amount 
of labor has been wasted in man and 
team in the production of it. Nor is that 
all ; because, of course, one acre of the 
two would, if not so occupied, be availa- 
ble for another crop. 

There is no doubt whatever, that for 
many crops (although not for all) the 
proportion of two to one is by no means 
exaggerated ; or, that deep tillage alone. 



will, in many instances, make that, and 
more than that, difference. 

Many modifications of subsoil plough- 
ing present themselves into which our 
limits will not permit us to enter ; in 
some cases it may be expedient to bring 
up j)artially tlie subsoil to the surface ; 
in other instances this would be inexpe- 
dient. The nature of the land must de- 
termine that question. But there is no 
land that will not be materially benefited 
by subsoil ploughing in one way or other, 
unless the bottom be a pure gravel of a 
very open texture. And even in such 
land injury would not be done, unless, 
indeed, the gravel were brought to the 
surface, which of course no farmer would 
dream of. 

On a future occasion we may enter 
upon the positive advantages resulting 
from subsoiling, at present we have only 
space to advert to one or two of the ob- 
jections sometimes urged against it. 

It is erroneously supposed by some 
persons that in lands with a sandy bot- 
tom the practice of subsoiling renders 
them less capable of sustaining vegetable 
life during the drouths of summer. 

A greater follacy can not exist. The 
more compact soil is, the more easily will 
it conduct heat on the one hand, and the 
less water or moisture will it hold, on 
the other. A brick will heat through 
much more rapidly than a volume of dry 
earth or sand of equal size, and water 
will never conduct heat downwards. 

When, therefore, a sandy subsoil is 
ploughed, the effect being simply to 
make it thereby more porous and open, 
the consequence is that it is in a condi- 
tion mechanically to admit the roots of 
plants more readily ; and also to place 
it in a condition more freely to admit 
moisture from the surface, or by capillary 
attraction from below, whilst its greater 
permeability to the passage of atmosphe- 
ric air enables the vegetable particles di.s- 
tributed through it to take up in that 
passage a larger amount of anmionia 
from which one of the most essential ali- 
ments vegetable life is derived. 



14 



AGRICULTURAL. 



Again we have heard raised an opin- 
io i that the disturbance of subsoils con- 
sisting of hard pan is injurious, on the 
ground of its becoming intermixed with 
the surface soil. This objection is as un- 
tenable as the previous one. For, in the 
first place, such intermixture need yot 
occur, (though in certain conditions and 
quantities tJiat might do good,) whilst the 
benefits to be derived would be of a sim- 
ilar kind, but in yet greater amount, 
than in the case of the sandy land. 

We purpose again to revert to a sub- 
ject of such great importance to the 
farmer. 



THE FARMER. 

We have seldom found any thing 
more beautiful and true than the follow- 
ing, which we cut from the New- Yoi^Jc 
Ledger. If there is any thing in it from 
which we dissent, it is, that the faimer 
can live without the mechanic, but not 
the mechanic without the farmer. This 
is true, if we reduce the word live to its 
lowest meaning. But in the sense of 
living well — prospering — the farmer 
needs the mechanic, not only to make 
his plow and reaper, and to build his 
house, but to create a maiket for his 
produce. The truth is, the farmer and 
the mechanic are very necessary to each 
other ; and it is not easy to say which 
needs the other most. 

What a sovereign man is the intelli- 
gent, industrious farmer. Within his 
own realm of earth, he wields a sceptre 
to which all must bend. The balance of 
the world's life and comfort he holds in 
liis stalwart hand. Neither courts, nor 
camps, nor armies, nor fleets, can exist 
without his aid. He is the feeder — aye, 
and the garmenter, virtuall3^~of the race. 
Cities spring from the traffic in the pro- 
ducts of his industry. Commerce is 
bom at his bequest. Of the State he is 
" first Estate." Lord of the land, no 
man has firmer hold of the essential title 
of nobility. And he need be no plodder 
because he is a farmer. The day is past 
when the soil tiller was confounded with 
the clod turned by his plow. The soil 
is his servitor ; he smites it, and lo ! the 



harvest comes forth. The hoe and the 
sickle make him music braver than dul- 
cimers, and sound the march of a tri- 
umph, grand as it is peaceful and bless- 
ed. But he is not forever in the furrow. 
For him are broadest fields of study — 
fairest fields of delight. For him are 
honors linked to beauties and wisdoms ; 
for him, periods of communion and rap- 
ture, of which the birds, the flowers, the 
streams, the stars, and all wondrous 
things of the universe, may bear witness. 
A brave man art thou, wielder of the 
mallet and plane ; and thou, skillful 
worker of webs ; and thou, deviser of all 
machines whereby the labor of man's 
hand is speeded or abridged. But ye 
are all second to the farmer. He is mas- 
ter of the needfulest of toils, and the 
most serviceable products. He can live 
without you, but you can not exist for a 
day without him. Honor to the farmer ; 
may his sphere widen and his stature be 
exalted. And honor to all honest toil, for 
of such are the fruits that form the 
crownina; glories of the world. 



A WORD TO FARMERS. 

An exchange says, afd we approve 
and adopt, the following : 

Now, farmers, is the time to com- 
mence writing for your paper. Now the 
long winter evenings aie drawing on, 
you have time to write, and your brother 
farmers have time to read your letters ; 
do so then at once. Give us the fruits 
of your experience, in facts and facts 
only. 

Short letters are best, so give us your 
ideas in as compact a form as possible. 
We should like to hear from some one 
upon sheep, swine, poultry — upon ma- 
nures, the various methods of cultivation 
as at present in actual use in the Gran- 
ite State. 



SYRUP FROM THE SUGAR CANE. 

Mr. Charles Keeny, of Chester, in 
this county, presented us last week with 
a bottle of syrup manufactured from the 
Chinese Sugar Cane, which for clear- 
ness, deliciousness of taste, and excellent 
quality, far exceeds, iu our judgment, 
the best Southern Sugar-House syrup. 
It has none of the raw, sti oug, cane 
taste peculiar to the latter article, but is 
rich in taste and color. Mr. Keeny in- 
forms us that he procured in the spring 
only Jlfti/ cents' worth of the seed, in- 



AGRICULTURAL, 



15 



tending simply to try its saccharine 
qualities as an experiment. The result 
far exceeds his anticipations. From that 
fifty cents' worth of seed he obtained half 
a barrel of delicious syrup, worth at 
leiist seventj'-five cents per gallon. His 
method of manufacturing it is similar to 
that adopted in making syrup and sugar 
from the maple, by boiling, cleansing, 
skimming, etc. We regard Mr. Keeny's 
experiment as entirely successful, and if 
any one wishes to satisfy himself of the 
truth of the above statement, let him call 
at our office and tante for himself — 
Jeffersonian Democrat. 

ON STEAM PLOUGHING. 

BY ?. MANNY. 

Wadam's Gkove, Nov. SO, 1857. 

Messrs. Editors — Dear Sirs : — I no- 
tice an article in your November number, 
headed Steam Plough, stating that Mr. 
Bronson Murray, of Illinois, has offered 
$50,000 for the best practical steam 
plough. This, I think, is a mistake ; 
and, as I have reason to believe, the pro- 
position he did make some time ago to 
try to raise that amount of money as a 
bonus for the best invention, is likely to 
prove an injurious stimulent to our in- 
ventive genius, in as much as it will no 
doubt induce a number of our hard- 
working, industrious mechanics to spend 
too much of their time on that which I 
believe never will benefit anybody. I 
am an inventor myself, and my success 
may clearly be traced back to the start- 
ing point, which is this: In the first 
place ascertain as clearly as possible 
whether such an invention will prove 
profitable and beneficial to the public. 
As I have investigated many years ago 
the practicability of steam ploughing, I 
will state the result of my investigation. 
In the first [)lacc its cost will be $4,000 
or $5,000 at least, the interest on which 
in our State will be $500 a year. The 
wages of two men to run it three months, 
which is about the average time of plow- 
ing in a year, at $1 50 per day each, 
added to the interest, makes $734. Al- 
lowing it to plough li) acres per day, 



this would be 780 acres, leavmg out the 
cost of fuel and repairs, and the expense 
is nearly $1 per acre. Except the prai- 
rie sod, we can hire our land ploughed 
for 75 cents per acre; but there is a 
more profitable way than this, which we 
shall some day universally adopt ; — 
stock our farms as they should be with 
cattle, and while they are growing up 
into bullocks, they will not only do all 
our ploughing, but will give us about 25 
per cent, in their growth. Now the dif- 
ference between ploughing with our 
steers and gaining 25 per cent, in their 
growth, or ploughing with a steam en- 
gine and losing 10 per cent, on its cost, 
is so great that I could never make my- 
self believe that any sane man would 
adopt steam ploughing on our prairie 
forms, where we have such abundant 
means, for raising stock. If steam 
ploughing proves to be profitable any 
where, it must be among our eastern 
farmers where their farms are too small 
to keep stock sufficient for ploughing. 

The writer of the above is a veteran 
in a good cause. He has done well in 
the reaper and mower line, and we be- 
lieve he is now doing better and better 
every year-«-making realh^ valuable im- 
provements. But he has fliilcd to prove 
to our apprehension that some one else, 
or even he himself, niaj' not yet do a 
greater thing for agriculture in the way 
of steam ploughing. We have an idea 
that his objections to it are answerable, 
but we leave them to some of our cor- 
respondents, only stating our belief that 
the time is not fiu' distant when steam 
ploughs will be manufactured for less 
money, and will plough more land per 
day than he estimates. — Ed. 



AUTUMNAL CULTIVATION— AS A 
MEANS FOR GOOD FARMING. 

AVe could not subscribe to every word 
of the following, from the (London) Farm- 
ers' Magazine, but we believe that it is, 
in the main, true and important, and that 



16 



AGRICULTURAL. 



very much is gained by the fall cultiva- 
tion of soils, especially those of a heavy 
nature, and we very much doubt wheth- 
er the cultivation of even light sandy 
soils, in autumn, is as injurious as has 
been sometimes represented. Will some 
of our readers give us the results of their 
experience in fall cultivation, noting par- 
ticularly the character of the soil ? 

It is highly necessary we should pos- 
sess clear and distinct views upon every 
subject connected with the practice of 
agriculture ; and we again revfcrt to the 
system of autumnal cultivation, because 
we feel it to be a subject of vast import- 
ance to the farming interest of the king- 
dom at large, while it is our observation 
and conviction that the practice is nei- 
ther generally understood nor sufficient- 
ly appreciated. It is certainly but par- 
tially and imperfectly carried out, both 
as to efficiency and in extent. 

"We do not presume to the position of 
tutors in agriculture ; but we do desire 
to see more of the autumnal fallow, and 
less of the curse of creation in the shape 
of the thorn and the thistle, and the com- 
mingled mass of grass and rubbish which 
feast upon and impoverish the soil. We 
want good forming to be general ; we 
want bad farming to be the exception. 
We desire to see comparative garden cul- 
ture abounding ; and well may you who 
have already attained to it plume your- 
selves at your will and at your pleasure 
upon your superior skill and surpassing 
judgment; but where weeds exist and 
abound, there is other and more import- 
ant work to be done. Weeds and self- 
laudation and self-satisfaction will not 
do ; they are our admitted enemies ; they 
are as a stealthy foe, and as insidious 
robbers. Therefore Extirpation! must 
be our watched and our cry, whilst the 
autumn system of fallow must be our 
practice. It is unquestionably the cheap- 
est and best means by which to secure 
and maintain a clean occupation, and it 
has but to be tried in practice to be ap- 
preciated ; and, when appreciated, it will 
be considered worthy of strenuous eflforts 
to be carried out generally as a common 
system of culture. The time is coming 
when it must be viewed not as secondary, 
but of primary, importance ; for the fu- 
ture will be far too competitive an age for 
the farmer manacled and tied with the 
fetters of his couch to stand a chance, or 
find either existence or breathing-space 



in the straining exertions of the hard- 
fought race for profit. He must be dis- 
tanced. Extra weight will tell. If clean 
farming won't pay, foul-farming can't; 
and the landed proprietors are gradually 
learning the worth of a good tenant, 
whilst they reject and eject the bad. 

Autumn cultivation has for its main 
object the eradication and destruction of 
all the perennial weeds which infest the 
soil ; and it is to this end every operation 
should, in the first instance, be fully di- 
rected. The annuals are but secondary ; 
therefore for couch and so forth it is 
highly necessary to cultivate deeply, and, 
whether with Biddell's, Bentall's or Cole- 
man's scarifiers, or the common plow, it 
is essential to thoroughly break up the 
soil to its accustomed depth. Above all 
things, it is requisite {o be careful that 
no couch remains in the solid soil be- 
neath the passage for the share. We re- 
peat, the soil must be broken to the 
depth at which it is usually plowed, or 
perfect cleanness will not be efiected. 
We know that this is often no light task, 
and a master's eye must watch the pro- 
gress of the work, or it will be but par- 
tially and inefBciently performed. The 
truth is, every horseman has his favorite 
"Sharper" or "Pepper" or "Boxer," 
and these animals, in his estimation, are 
of far more consequence than good tillage, 
therefore spare them he will if possible. 
Besides, the weather is hot, the flies 
sharp, the land hard, and Tom or Jem 
will ease the depth a little too much, or 
swear point-blank it can't be done at all. 
Now comes the master's firmness and 
sound judgment to dictate what can and 
what shall be done, and how. We have 
seen many a complaisant man foiled and 
overruled by the plausibility or perver- 
sity of his men, but almost any land can 
be properly broken up by the use of the 
proper means ; and, if the value of au- 
tumn cultivation were really understood, 
the country at large would jjresenta very 
different appearance at the present time. 
Truly the system is on the increase ; but 
how many a set of horses have we of late, 
and especially at the commencement of 
harvest, idly swinging their tails in some 
rough pasture, under the shade of some 
old oak or ash, instead of being first fed 
with a good feed of corn, (which they 
require,) and then attached to an effect- 
ive implement for the cultivation of some 
neighboring stubble — which by-the-bye, 
contained " such good sheep-fed," " such 
laying for birds," and, in short, such an 



AGRICULTURAL 



11 



amount of deviltry as would beggar des- 
cription, and even defy spring-cleansing, 
with all its operations of many plowings 
and endless harrowings. To 1)0 brief, 
two or three scarifyings or stirrings un- 
der a scorching sun, in August, would 
have been sufficient to destroy the thou- 
sand-and-one enemies which have floui- 
ished through a course of years, and still 
Nourish on without molestation ; and the 
horses would have been far better occu- 
pied than in doing nothing. Although 
ever}^ county is the best-farmed in the 
kingdom, according to local tradition and 
agricultural banter, yet every county 
needs to be much better farmed than it 
\>>. We are sickened at the sight of foul 
stubbles ; and so infinite are the advan- 
tages arising from fallowing in the au- 
tumn, that it is both the system and the 
season we can not afford to neglect. We 
allow there are diflBculties to overcome 
in the cultivation of a wide breadth at so 
busy a time of the year ; but to how 
many minds do any innovations present 
insurmovmtable obstacles ! We do not 
say this in the spirit of condemnation 
or complaint; for many even sensible 
men do not comprehend, or appreciate, 
at first sight, the benefit likely to ai ise 
from any new but sound practices. 
Further, we need to be cautious, and 
there is no reason why autumn cultiva- 
tion should be swallowed wholesale. Tf 
the utility to arise is unappreciated, the 
trouble of its accomplishment will appear 
incompatible with the advantages accru- 
ing— consequently, by such the task will 
not be undertaken, and thus men may 
or may not live on with a mental hedge 
of thorns to all progress, content to swim 
with the tide, because slow to appreciate, 
and far too local in education and in 
knowledge. Realize the value, and ar- 
range the work of the farm, that some cul- 
tivation at least can be done. We pre- 
pare for, and plant our wheat crop ; why 
not eradicate and destroy our weed crop ? 
The one is as important as the other, and 
the latter should be considered as pri- 
mary to the former. 

We have advocated deep autumnal 
cultivation for the destruction of the pe- 
rennials, and, as time is an importjint 
consideration, the rubbish must be kept 
at the surface for exposure to the sun's 
rays. It may not be buried snug in the 
soil, to be shaded from the influence of 
the sun, but have the couch out for pub- 
lic exposure and the bright noon of day. 
Presuming a shower of rain to fall, how 



beautifully, by harrowing, the clods 
come to powder and the couch to the 
surface, to be baked by the sun, or 
burned in a series of bonfires ! 

With fineness of tilth and moisture of 
soil, now comes the turn for the vegeta- 
tion of the annuals, and an abundant 
crop of young weeds present themselves. 
Tims perennials and annuals are alike 
destroyed, and the land freed for the 
growth of any desirable produce. Man- 
ure, too, can now be applied with un- 
abated success ; the expense of hoeing, 
in future, is reduced ; and a crop can be 
grown which is worthy of the soil and 
the skill of the cultivator. 

We know of men this year, who, just 
previous to harvest, broke up and per- 
fectly fallowed tlieir clover-stubbles. 
This was after once mowing the crop 
and feeding the after-growth, and only 
upon such lands where the succeeding 
wheat-plant is usually subject to wire- 
worm, and to be root-fallen. They have, 
further, since cultivated their hundred 
acres of corn-stubbles deeply, and with 
full success. And nothing but the wet- 
ness of September has prevented much 
greater progress. 

As a finale, cultivate deeply, keep the 
weeds at the surface, avail yourselves of 
your existing horse-power, and you will 
find autumnal cultivation much to your 
individual profit, and to the good of the 
country at large. 



FROM EDWARD EVERETT'S AD- 
DRESS AT BUFFALO. 

In the first place, the earth which is 
to be cultivated instead of being either 
a uniform or a homogeneous mass, is 
made up of a variety of materials, dilfer- 
ing in different places, and possessing 
different chemical and agricultural prop- 
erties and qualities. A few of these ele- 
ments, and especially clay, lime and 
sand, predominate, usually intermixed 
to some extent by nature, and capable 
of being, so mingled and treated by art, 
as to produce a vastly increased fertility. 
The late Lord Leicester in England, 
better known as Mr. Coke, first carried 
out this idea on a large scale, and more 
than doubled the productive value of his 
great estates in Norfolk by claying his 
light soils. To conduct operations of 
this kind, some knowledge of geology, 
minerology and chemistiy, is required. 
The enrichment of the earth by decay- 
ing animal and vegetable substances, is 



18 



AGRICULTURAL 



the most familiar operation perhaps in 
husbandry ; but it is only since its scien- 
tific principles have been explored by 
Davy and Liebig, that the great practical 
improvements in this branch of agricul- 
ture have taken place. It is true that 
the almost boundless natural fertility of 
the soil supersedes for the present, in 
some parts of our country, the impor- 
tance of artificial enrichment. I in- 
quired last spring of a friend living in a 
region of this kind, on the banks of the 
Ohio, how they contrived to get rid of 
the accumulation of the farm-yard, (a 
strange question it will seem to farmers 
in this part of the world,) and he answer- 
ed, " By carting it down to the river's 
side, and emptying it into the stream." 
In another portion of the western coun- 
try, where I had seen hemp growing 
vigorously about thirty years ago, I found 
that wheat was now the prevailing crop. 
I was informed that the land was origin- 
ally so rich as to be adapted only for 
hemp, but had now become poor enough 
for wheat. 

These, however, are not instances of 
a permanent and normal condition of 
things. In the greater part of the Union, 
especially in those portions which have 
been for some time under cultivation, 
the annual exhaustion must be restored 
by the annual renovation of the soil. To 
accomplish this object, of late years 
every branch of science, every resource 
of the laboratory, every kingdom of 
nature, has been placed under contribu- 
tion. Battle-fields have been dug over 
for the bones of their victims ; geology 
has furnished lime, gypsum and marl ; 
commerce has explored the remotest 
seas for guano, and has called loudly on 
diplomacy to assist her efforts ; chemis- 
trj'' has been tasked for the production 
of compounds, which, in the progress ot 
science, may supercede those of animal 
or vegetable origin which are prepared 
by nature. The nutritive principles de- 
veloped by decaying animal and vegeta- 
ble organization are universally diffused 
throughout the material world, and the 
problem to be solved is to produce them 
artificially on a large scale, cheap enough 
for general use. In the mean time, the 
most simple and familiar processes of 
enrichment, with the aid of mechanical 
power and a moderate application of cap- 
ital, are producing the most astonishing 
results. The success which has attend- 
ed Mr. Mechi's operations in England is 
familiar to us all. By the application of 



natural fertilizing liquids, sprinkled by 
a steam engine over his fields, they have 
been made to produce, it is said, seven 
annual crops of heavy grass. 

Simple water is one of the most ef- 
fectual fertilizers, and in some countries 
irrigation, carried on with no moderate 
degree of hydraulic skill, is the basis of 
their husbandry. While walking, on 
one occasion, with the late Lord Ash- 
burton, in his delightful grounds in 
Hampshire, just before he departed on 
his special mission to this country, in 
one of the intervals of our earnest con- 
ference on the North-eastern Boundary, 
he told me that he had expended ten 
thousand pounds sterling in conducting 
round his fields the waters of the little 
river — the Itchen, I think, that flows 
through the property, and that it was 
money well laid out. Pardon me the 
digression of a moment to say that I 
could not but honor the disinterested 
patriotism which led this kind-hearted, 
upright and intelligent man, at an ad- 
vanced age, (with nothing on earth to 
gain or desire, and with everything of 
reputation to risk,) to leave the earthly 
paradise in which I saw him, and to 
cross the Atlantic in the winter, in a 
sailing vessel, (bis voyage was of fifty- 
one days,) to do his part in adjusting a 
controversy which had seriously men- 
aced the peace of the two countries. 
The famous water-meadows of the Duke 
of Portland, at Olipstone, have been often 
described, where the same operations has 
been performed on a still more extensive 
scale. Mr. Colman's interesting volumes 
on European agriculture contain accounts 
of other works of this kind, but I confine 
myself to those which have fallen under 
my own observation. 

Nor are these the only operations in 
which agriculture calls for the aid of 
well-instructed skill. That moisture, 
which in moderation is the great vehicle 
of vegetable nourishment, may exist in 
excess. Vast tracts of land are lost to 
husbandry in this country, which might 
be reclaimed by dykes and embank- 
ments, or become fertile by drainage. 
Land is yet too abundant and cheap in 
America to admit of great expenditures 
in this way, except in very limited lo- 
calities ; but the time will no doubt 
come when in the populous portions of 
the country, especially in the nighbor- 
hood of large cities, the sunken marshes 
which now stretch along our coast will 
be reclaimed from the ocean, as in Hoi- 



AGRICULTURAL 



19 



land ; and thousands of acres in the in- 
terior, now given up to alder swamps 
and cranberry meadows, be clothed with 
grass and com. There are few forms 
of any size in the country, which do not 
contain waste spots of this kind — the 
harbor of turtles, frogs and serpents — 
which might be brought at moderate 
expense and some hydraulic skill, into 
cultivation. Other extensive tracts are 
awaiting the time when the increase of 
population and the enhanced value of 
land will bear the expense of costly ope- 
rations in engineering. The marshes on 
the sea-coast of New-England, New- York 
and New-Jersey, probably exceed in the 
aggregate the superhces of the Kingdom 
of the Netherlands, the greater part of 
which has been redeemed by artificial 
means from the ocean — a considerable 
tract, covered by the Lake of Harlem, 
within a few years. Now, if we could 
only add a new territory to the Union, 
as large as the Kingdom of the Nether- 
lands, by the peaceful operations of hus- 
bandry, it would be a species of annexa- 
tion to which I for one should make no 
objection. All the resources of science 
have been called into operation in that 
country, under the direction of a sepa- 
rate Department of the Government, to 
sustain the hydraulic works which pro- 
tect it from the ocean. The state of 
things is similar in the fens of Lincoln- 
shire and Bedfordshire. All the spare 
revenues of the Grand Duke of Tuscany 
have been appropriated for years to the 
improvement of the low grounds on the 
coast of that country, once the abode of 
the powerful Etruscan Confederacy, 
which ruled Italy before the ascendancy 
of the Romans, now, and for ages past, a 
malarious, uninhabitable waste. 

But when science and art have done 
their best for the preparation of the soil, 
they have but commenced their opera- 
tions in the lowest department of agri- 
culture. They have dealt, thus far, only 
with what we call lifeless nature, though 
I apply that word with reluctance to the 
genial bosom of our mother earth, from 
which everything that germinates draws 
its life and appropriate nourishment. 
Still, however, we take a great step up- 
ward, when, in pursuing the operations 
of husbandry, we ascend from mineral 
and inorganic substances to vegetable 
organization. We now enter a new 
world of agricultural research •, the mys- 
teries of assimilation, growth and decay ; 
of seed time and harvest ; the life, the 



death, and the reproduction of the vege- 
table world. Here we still need the 
light of science, but rather to explore 
and reveal than to imitate the operations 
of nature. The skilful agricultural 
chemist can mingle soils and compound 
fertilizing phosphates ; but with all his 
apparatus and all his reagents, it is be- 
yond his power to fabricate the humblest 
leaf He can give you, to the thousandth 
part of a grain, the component elements 
of wheat — he can mingle those elements 
in due proportion in his laboratory — but 
to manufacture a single kernel, endowed 
with living reproductive power, is as 
much beyond his skill as to create a 
world. 

Every topic to which I have thus 
hastily alluded, in connection with the 
vegetable kingdoms of nature, suggests 
inquiry for the naturalist, in some de- 
partment of his studies, and forms the 
subject of regular courses of instruction 
in some of the European universities, es- 
pecially those in Germany. 

The insects and vermin injurious to 
vegetation present another curious and 
difficult path of inquiry. A very con- 
siderable part of every crop of grain and 
fruit is planted, not for the mouths of 
our children, but for the fly, the curculio, 
and the canker-worm, or some other oi 
these pests of husbandry. Science has 
done something, and will no doubt do 
more, to alleviate the plague. It has al- 
ready taught us not to wage equal war 
on the wheat fly and the parasite which 
preys upon it ; and it will, perhaps, 
eventually persuade those who need the 
lesson, that a few peas and cherries are 
well bestowed by way of dessert on the 
cheerful little warblers who turn our 
gardens into concert-rooms, and do so 
much to aid us in the wai'farc against 
the grubs and caterpillars which form 
their principal meal. 

Agriculture is looking anxiously to 
science for informatian on the nature 
and remedies of the formidable disease 
which has of late years destroj^ed so 
large a portion of the potato crop. Th« 
naturalist who shall solve that problem 
will stand high among the benefactors of 
his race. 

Closely connected with this depart- 
ment of agriculture is another, in which 
the modern arts have made great pro- 
gress, and in which inventive sagacity is 
still dilligently and successfully employ- 
ed. I refer to agricultural machinery — 
improved implements of husbandry. 



20 



AGRICULTURAL. 



This is a field in which the creative 
powers of the mind seem to be at work 
with an activity never before equalled, 
and which is likely to produce more 
important results in this than in any 
other country. The supply of labor in 
the United States has not kept pace 
with the demand, as it can rarely do in 
a new country, where strong temptations 
exist for enterprising attempt in every 
branch of industry. This state of things 
has furnished very powerful induce- 
ments for the introduction of labor-sav- 
ing machinery and implements, and the 
proverbial ingenuity of our countrymen 
has been turned with great success in 
that direction. Your exhibition grounds 
fully j ustify this remark. Even the good 
old plow has become almost a new ma- 
chine in its various novel forms ; and 
other implements of the most ingenious 
contrivance and efBcient action have 
been invented. The cultivator, the 
horse-rake, the mowing-machine, the 
reaper, and the threshing-machine, are 
daily coming into use in Europe and 
America, and producing the most im- 
portant economy of labor. Successful 
attempts are making to work them by 
steam. It was said long ago of the 
cotton-gin, by Mr. Justice Johnson, of 
the Supreme Court of the United States, 
that it had doubled the value of the lands 
in the cotton-growing region ; and the 
mowing-machine, the reaper, and the 
treshing-machine are destined, almost to 
the same extent, to alleviate the severest 
labors of the farmer's year. The fame 
of the reaper is not confined to this 
hemisphere. At the great exhibition of 
the Industry of all Nations, in London, 
in 1851, it mainly contributed to enable 
American art to hold up her head in the 
face of the civilized world. 

But there is still another department 
of agriculture which opens the door to 
research of a higher order, and deals 
with finer elements — I mean that which 
regards the domestic animals attached 
to the service of man, and which are of 
such inestimable importance as the di- 
rect partners of his labors, as furnishing 
one of the great articles of his food, and 
as a principal resource for restoring the 
exhausted fertility of the soil. In the 
remotest ages of antiquity, into which 
the torch of history throws not the faint- 
est gleam of light, a small number, se- 
lected from the all but numberless races 
of the lower animals, were adopted by 
domestication into the family of man. 



So skillful and exhaustive was this se- 
election that 3,000 years of experience, 
during which Europe and America have 
been settled by civilized races of men, 
have not added to the number. It is 
somewhat humbling to the pride of our 
rational nature to consider how much of 
our civilization rests on this partnership 
— how helpless we should be, deprived 
of the horse, the ox, the cow, the sheep, 
the swine, the goat, the ass, the reindeer, 
the dog, the cat, and the various kinds 
of poultry. In the warmer regions this 
list is enlarged by the lama, the elephant, 
and the camel — the latter of which, it is 
not unlikely, wiU be extensively intro- 
duced in our own southern region. 

It may be said of this subject, as of 
that to which I have already alluded, 
that it is a science of itself No branch 
of husbandry has, within the last cen- 
tury, engaged more of the attention of 
farmers, theoretical and practical, than 
the improvement of the breed of domes- 
tic animals, and in none perhaps has the 
attention thus bestowed been better re- 
paid. By judicious selection and mix- 
tures of the parent stock, and by intelli- 
gence and care in the training and nour- 
ishing of the young animals, the improv- 
ed breeds of the present day dilFer pro- 
bably almost as much from their prede- 
cessors a hundred years ago, as we may 
suppose the entire races of domesticated 
animals do from the wild stocks from 
which they are descended. 

There is no reason to suppose that the 
utmost limit of improvement has been 
reached in this direction. Deriving our 
improved animals as we generally do 
from Europe — that is, from a climate 
differing materially from our own — it is 
not unlikely that, in the lapse of time, 
experience will lead to the production of 
a class of animals, better adapted to the 
peculiarities of our seasons than any of 
the transatlantic varieties as they now 
exist. The bare repetition of the words 
draft, speed, endurance, meat, milk, but- 
ter, cheese, and wool, will suggest the 
vast importance of continued experi- 
ments, on this subject, guided by all the 
lights of physiological science. 

Among the most prominent desidera- 
ta, in what may be called animal hus- 
bandry, may be mentioned an improved 
state of veterinary science in this coun- 
try. While the anatomy of the lower 
animals is substantially the same as 
man's, their treatment when diseased or 
overtaken by accidents is left almost 



AG RICULTURAL. 



21 



wholly to uneducated empiricism. It 
rarely, I may say, never happens that the 
substantial farmer has not considerable 
property invested in live stock, to say 
nothing of the personal attachment he 
often feels for some of his favorites — 
horse, or cow, or dog. But when their 
frames, as delicately organized and as 
sensitive as our own, are attacked by 
disease, or they meet with a serious ac- 
cident, they are of necessity in most 
parts of the country committed to the 
care of persons wholly ignorant of ana- 
tomy and physiology, or imperfectly ac- 
quainted with them, and whose skill is 
comprehended in a few rude traditionary 
operations and nostrums. There are few 
of us, I suppose, who have not had some 
painful experience on this subject, both 
in our pockets and our feehngs. The 
want of veterinary institutions, and of a 
class of well-educated practitioners, is 
yet to be supplied. 



CATTLE SHOW IN THE METRO- 
POLIS. 

An exhibition of stall and grass fed 
fat cattle, sheep, swine, and poultry was 
opened at the Crystal Palace yesterday 
morning, under the auspices of the Amer- 
ican Institute. The variety and size of 
the exhibition was by no means as ex- 
tensive as might have been expected, al- 
though it is very creditable, and compri- 
ses many very fine and valuable speci- 
mens of cattle, sheep and swine, among 
the most prominent of which are tho fol- 
lowing : 

One pair of four year old Durham 
steers, owned by Charles G. Teed, atSo- 
mers, Westchester county, and weighing 
together 4,580 pounds. These were of 
the Durham breed, very fine and fat, and 
drew the first premium on grass fed cat- 
tle. ■ 

A remarkably fine pair of Durham 
steers, 4 years old, owned by Thomas 
Wheeler, South Dover, Dutchess county, 
weighed 4,480 lbs, and drew the second 
premium on grass fed cattle. Also a 
very fine pair of Durham steers, of 
four years, owned by T. Van Alstyne, 
Ghent, Columbia Co., N, Y. These drew 



a third, or special premium on grass fed 
cattle. 

A very handsome Devon bull, dark 
brown, weighing about 1,200 or 1,4U0 
pounds, very fat, broad and sleek. This 
animal presented a somewhat novel ap- 
pearance, being chained to a post by 
means of a large ring through his nose ; 
notwithstanding which he appeared very 
restless and desirous of paying his affec- 
tionate regards to some of the bystand- 
ers who were, ever and an«n, attempting 
to stroke and caress him. This animal 
is owned in White Plains, Westchester 
county. 

A pair of grade Devon oxen, stall fed 
and very fat, owned by Levi Van Vliet, 
Clinton, Dutchess Co., N. Y., but sold 
during the exhibition to Col. Devoe, of 
this city. The price we do not remem- 
ber precisely. It was between $300 and 
$400 ; we think $337. These were not 
remarkably large, but were very fat. 
Weight, 4,000 lbs. We should think 
them to be half Devon and half our native 
red cattle, which by the way, are good 
cattle, as good, in oiur humble opinion, 
for dairy and working purposes as any 
other, and pretty good for beef. If bred 
and cared for in the best manner, they 
would become a splendid race of cattle 
in a few generations. After so much 
haphazard breeding, so much neglect 
in rearing, and after killing so many of 
the fine calves for veal, and raising the 
inferior, the only wonder is that they are 
as good as we find them, more or less, all 
over the country. Mr. Van Vliet's, sub- 
sequently Col. Devoe's cattle, di-ew the 
first premium on stall fed oxen. 

Two Durham heifers, from West 
Farms, very fine. 

One pair of very fat oxen weighing in 
the neighborhood of 4,000 pounds, be- 
longing in Newcastle, Westchester coun- 
ty. Very fine. 

Seventy-two Nankin sheep, the origi- 
nal stock consisting of three ewes, were 
imported from China by Capt. Smith, 
twenty months ago, and have since that 



22 



AGRICULTURA L 



period increased to the present number, 
seventy-two. Among this lot are three 
very young lambs, apparently not over a 
week old. The flesh of these sheep, it is 
said, is far superior in sweetness to any 
other kind of mutton, and brings a much 
higher price in market ; while the wool 
is said to be much coarser. They are 
easily designated from the common sheep 
of this country by the formation of their 
head and ears. This lot is, as a general 
thing, in good condition, and made a 
very fine appearance. They are owned 
in Pelham, Ulster county. 

Ten very fine and large fat lambs, from 
Oarmel, Putnam county. 

Five Suffolk pigs and one Hampshire 
hog, from Sixty-fifth street, this city. 
Very fat and fine. 

A beautiful collection of imported pi- 
geons from various portions of the globe, 
by Messrs. Howland & Aspinwall. 

One four year old Maltese jack, in fine 
trim. Owned in this city. 

The above list comprises but a small 
portion of each kind of animal named, on 
exhibition ; but was selected from the 
number merely to serve as specimens. 

The number of visitors yesterday was 
very limited, and if the exhibition is not 
better patronized during the remaining 
days which it is to be continued, the 
American Institute will not reap a very 
handsome harvest from the enterprise. 
In addition to the cattle show, exhibitors 
who have machinery in the Palace, keep 
the same in motion throughout the day. 



EXTRACT FROM AN ADDRESS, 

BY GEN. H. K. OLIVEB, 

At the State Fair, Concord, N. H. 

I MAKE a high estimate of agriculture 
from a long and deeply seated conviction 
that reason as we may about other arts, 
either in reference to their antiquity, 
their universality, their value, or their 
necessity, we are clearly compelled to 
revert to agriculture, not only as the 
fount of their existence, but as the sus- 
tenance of their continued vitality, the 
liberal feed root of all the branches, and 
all the fruit of the tree of human life. 



We are compelled to concede that it is 
the great and only enduring and reliable 
fount of national greatness and prosper- 
ity ; that the whole pulse of commercial 
and monetary operations is affected by 
the healthful and unhealthful beatings 
of the agricultural heart; that stocks 
and prices in the market and on 
" change," rise and fall as the agricul- 
tural tide ebbs and flows ; that, as come 
the crops, either plenteous or meagre, so 
darts or limps the gigantic business of 
the busy world ; that it prevents human 
poverty, human misery, and human 
wickedness ; that it has a positive favor- 
able influence upon private and public 
morals ; that it is pre-eminently propi- 
tious in securing habits of virtue and tem- 
perance in all things, in individuals, and 
through them, thus purified, operates 
with equally good results in purifying 
the public mind, and in establishing the 
pillars of the State upon the steadfast 
foundation of persistent, unbending vir- 
tue ; that it is a faithful and powerful 
auxiliary of Christianity itself, in gen- 
erating civilization, and nourishing it 
into vigorous life ; civilization itself be- 
ing, in its matured growth, enabled to 
refund its great debt by inventing new 
implements of labor, and, by their aid, 
putting into operation new modes of til- 
lage. 

There are certain facts in relation to 
agriculture so plainly manifest, that the 
most blear-eyed observer can not fail to 
perceive them. In China, a close and 
perfect cultivation keeps alive all of civi- 
lization that its teeming millions enjoy. 
There agriculture has been honored and 
encouraged beyond every other pursuit, 
and the culture of the land and the na- 
ture of its produce, are such as to afford 
the largest returns to the labor employ- 
ed, while the ruined husbandry of Cen- 
tral Asia has opened the flood-gates and 
let in upon its people a deluge of barbar- 
ism. The ancient high culture of Sicily 
made it the exhaustless granary of 
Rome, and carried its people by rapid 
advances to civilization, riches, and re- 
finement. The husbandry of ancient 
Britain, once not adequate even to the 
wants of its own sparse population, made 
it, under the teachings of its Roman 
masters, the surcharged storehouse, 
whence issued the food of uncultivated 
Germany, while, at the same time, it 
softened the manners and refined the 
hearts of its own rude people. And 
when, under the Saxon sway, agricul- 



AGRICULTURAL 



23 



turc declined to its lowest degradation, 
and the mass of the people became de- 
graded with it, they only began to im- 
prove with the restoration of the art, a 
restoration due to the influence of the 
monks in introducing into England the 
better agriculture of Normandy. The 
northern sea pirates of the 9 th century, 
those savage and remorseless marine 
vagabonds, who, in the year 876, invaded 
and subdued Normandy, became, when 
driven to the culture of the soil by their 
leader RoUo, a comparatively civilized 
gentle race, and so successful in the art 
of tillage, that their systems were ac- 
knowledged to be the best of Europe, 
and were introduced into England, upon 
the lands of the English monasteries, 
making them to be the most fertile in 
the Island, and laying the foundation of 
the attachment of the English to country 
life, and consequent future success of 
English agriculture ; a success which is 
now to be seen in the general neatness, 
exactness, and thoroughness which is to 
be met with all over the kingdom, and 
in the abundant yield of her well tilled 
acres. And can any one presume to say 
that the high civilization of England has 
no connection with the high culture of 
her soil, and that the two have not 
made their successful march with equal 
step? 

It is among the most propitious cir- 
cumstances for agriculture in every na- 
tion, that it has addicted itself to it with 
the devotion that agriculture may legiti- 
mately demand, that it has enlisted in 
its behalf, not only the best mechanical 
skill of its earnest devotees and artizans, 
but that it has attracted in an eminent 
degree, the friendship and the service of 
many of the noblest intellects with 
which God has endowed man. Head 
has come in, in the plentitude of its 
strength, to advise and to operate with 
hand. Had the art always been under 
the pasturage of unlettered men, so un- 
lettered that we may justly look upon 
them as mere agricultural drudges, there 
would be danger that beaten paths only 
would be pursued, and that the farmer, 
like the toiler in a treadmill, would be 
always returning upon his own footsteps 
and never be achieving any progress. 
They who do so, I am sorry to believe, 
yet exist, though in diminished and di- 
minishing numbers. May this remnant 
not be saved nor abide long in the land. 
Cultivated minds originate new ideas ; 
they try experiments, and all experi- 



ments can not be fruitless of good issue. 
Weary years may pass away in the pro- 
cess of research and investigation. God, 
who made the soil with all its cunning 
complicities and wonders, moves in a 
mysterious way, and his ways are often 
past finding out. Men may grope, and 
falter, and stumble in the dark scrutiny 
of experiment, and the uncertainty of 
practice, occasionally hitting the mark, 
and perhaps more frequently missing the 
truth. But mind, always superior to 
mere matter, always able to cope with 
and subdue it, comes in to illumine the 
darkness, and to supply the thread that 
shall guide through the tortuous lab- 
rinth — mind, thinking, reasoning, inqui- 
sitive, prying, searching, obstinate, un- 
yielding, indefatigable, investigating 
mind, comes in and questions, and cross- 
questions, and examines and re-exam- 
ines, and "puts that and that together," 
and compares, and hammers away, and 
thrusts itself forward after the truth and 
facts, till at last the weary dark gives 
way, far up in the east, slowly open the 
gates of morn, the dim dawn appears, 
the ruddier glow of the orient flashes up, 
and now, behold, up comes the gorgeous 
sun, great lustrous giant of the skies, 
and all is light and day, and the truth 
is grasped. Everybody w'ho has taken 
the smallest pains to find out the facts, 
knows and testifies, willingly or unwill- 
ingly, that agriculture has advanced 
just in proportion as mind, mind as de- 
veloped in men of intellect, intelligence, 
education and reflection, has given at- 
tention to it. The condition of English 
agriculture, as an obvious and sugges- 
tive example, bears ample testimony to 
the influence of mind upon it. Let us 
see if this is not so. In the middle of 
the 14th century, the produce of a farm, 
in the parish of Hampstead, in Suffolk, 
was at the rate of 

8^ bushels of wheat per acre. 
10 " barley " 

5 " oats " 

8 " peas " 

The farm contained 600 acres of land, 
of which 321 were under tillage. Land 
rented from $2 75 to $4 50 per acre per 
annum, and in one case, 18 acres were 
let on a lease of 80 years, at $1 80 per 
acre per annum. In the latter part of 
the 16th century, under the teachings 
of the monks, the sole educated men of 



24 



AGRICULTURAL 



the times, the monastery lands yielding 
at the rate of 

20 bushels of wheat, 
32 " barlev, 

40 " oats,' 

40 " peas, 

a very respectable yield. Let us pur- 
sue this point a little further. The Eng- 
lish agricultural community is divided 
into three classes, the laborers, the farm- 
ers, and the great land owners. Of the 
undesirable condition of the first named 
class, I do not now stop to speak. The 
middle class, the farmers, are not gener- 
ally owners of the land they till. They 
hire, on long lease, of the last named 
class, who own land by thousands and 
tens of thousands of acres. Nor are 
they generally actual workers on the 
knd they hire. If one of them have no 
more than a hundred acres, he seldom 
or never handles a tool. He supervises 
— he controls — he directs — he bosses 
the farm laborers whom he employs. 
His head directs their hands. His head 
devises modes of operating which the 
same head, through its peep holes, the 
eyes, sees that their hands put into prac- 
tice. His head, and that means his brain, 
is in communication with the brains of 
other farmers, who are overseers of their 
laborers, and the mutual conflict of brain 
with brain, of thought with thought, 
educates each into a better understand- 
ing of his craft. I am a great advocate 
of professional and practical specialities, 
for I believe that a devotion to one pur- 
suit, the doing of one thing well, tends 
to a better understanding of a given sub- 
ject, and elevates its practitioner to 
improved degrees of skill therein, and 
every degree of knowledge attained by 
the directing head, acts immediately 
upon the operating hand, and the op- 
erating hand, in this instance, acts upon 
the clods of soil, and makes it yield two 
grasses, two blades of wheat, two tur- 
nips, two pumpkins, and two units of all 
products else, where but one was yielded 
before. But to return. The great land- 
holders are comparatively few in number. 
I have seen them variously computed at 
from 30,000 to 40,000, who hold land 
property yielding an annual rent of not 
less than $500.00 per annum — the num- 
ber rapidly diminishing as the annual 
rent increases. The incomes of the 
wealthiest range from $100,000 to $1,- 
500,000 per annum. One hundred 
years ago, the land-holders of England 



proper were numbered at 230,000, which 
number has been ever since rapidly 
diminishing by the purchasing of the 
laflds of the thriftless and wasteful, by 
the more prudent and wealthy. The 
Marquis of Bredalbane rides out of his 
house a hundred miles in a straight line 
to the sea, on his own property. The 
Duke of Sutherland owns the county of 
Sutherland, sti-etching across Scotland 
from sea to sea. The Duke of Devon- 
shire, besides his other estates, owns 
96,000 acres in the county of Derby. 
The Duke of Richmond has 40,000 acres 
at Goodwood and 300,000 at Gordon 
Castle. The Duke of Norfolk's park, in 
Sussex, is 15 miles in circuit. An agri- 
culturist bought lately the island of 
Lewis, in the Hebrides ; it contains 
500,000 acres. Their large domains are 
growing larger. The great estates are 
absorbing the small freeholds. 

Among these great soil owners are 
many men of the highest intellectual 
powers and attainments, of the highest 
social position, and of the most refined 
culture ; noblemen, not only by tlie 
right of geniture and rank, but noble 
men in the noblest sense of the word, 
who are carrying forward upon their 
enormous estates, the most magnificent 
operations in the highest culture of the 
soil, winning from their well fed and 
well tilled acres, the richest reward of 
the wisest husbandry. One contem- 
plates with amazement the magnificence 
of their arrangements for irrigating 
hundreds of acres, as may be seen on 
the estate of the Duke of Portland, at 
Welbeck, in Nottinghamshire ; the vast 
extent of their systems of drainage anfl 
subsoiling, the enormous capital invested ' 
in carrying on their agricultural process- 
es and improvements, sind the enormous 
revenues by which they are enabled to 
push forward their splendid designs. I 
thank God that he has put in the hearts 
of such men to devote their splendid 
talents and their great resources to an 
enterprise so unspeakably important, 
and to exert their powerful influence in 
the promotion of so great a cause — a 
cause which holds concentrate within 
itself every inducement which should 
allure the loftiest minds and the fullest 
means to its support, because on its suc- 
cess humanity itself, the noblest creation 
of the divine mind, depends for the con- 
tinuance of its very existence. I venture 
to assert that but for the high culture 
which the soil of England has received 



AGRICULTURAL 



25 



under sucli influences, and the conse- 
quent development of its exuberant 
riches, her population could not have 
made the great strides that have carried 
it from 4^ millions in IGOO, to nearly 25 
millions in 1850 ; nor could the nation 
itself have attained that immense power 
and wealth, that make her now to stand 
foremost among the nations of the world, 
aud her nobles the richest and the 
noblest of all earth's nobles. Under the 
influence of the culture, created by the 
action of such minds upon labor, we find 
a yield of 50 to 80 bushels of wheat per 
acre in England, and from 40 to 70 in 
France, and the productive power of an 
acre of land in the well cultivated part 
of Europe to be double what it was 75 
years ago. In proof of the influence of 
improved tillage in England in enabling 
her to sustain her own people with 
diminished reliance upon importations 
from foreign countries, I may here state 
the interesting fact that while in the first 
ten years of the present century, she 
imported foreign wheat, at the rate of 
eight quarts per annum for each person 
in the realm ; in the next ten years she 
imported but six ; in the next five years, 
but four, and in the last three years of 
these five, at the low rate of a single 
pint — the soil of the kingdom supplying 
all the rest consumed. More land had 
indeed been brought under tillage, but 
every acre, old and new, had been better 
tilled, and had made a better yield. 

And now, here in dear New-England, 
how hath stood, and how stands the 
great art, when viewed by the light of 
English husbandry ? Conceding that, 
as a whole, ours is now inferior, though 
probably at the outset ours was better 
than theirs, at their outset, (all outsets 
savor of crudeness,) we may justly insist, 
in relation to the two when brought 
together for comparison, that Dogberry's 
saying is specially appHcable, that "com- 
parisons arc odious." 

The climate of England is, if the ex- 
pression may be allowed, more strictly 
an agricultural climate, and generally 
highly favorable to her farming. Her 
frequent rains, coming at brief intervals, 
and her nourishing fogs, give a vigorous 
life and a Vjeautiful freshness and green- 
ness of look to the grasses. These, indeed, 
they sometimes do have in excess, and 
damp, and wet, and want of sunshine 
thus become severe obstacles. But these 
are the exceptions and not the rule. 
With us, heat and cold, wet and dry, in 



sudden succession, like unlooked for and 
unbidden guests, just when least desired, 
or drouths of intense endurance, burning 
up and killing of every green herb upon 
the face of the land, and then deluges of 
rain, as though " the windows of heaven 
were opened," flooding field and farm, 
and which would sweep and wash ofl" 
houses and barns, and the very land and 
all before them, in one resistless, watery 
devastation, had not the merciful Al- 
mighty provided outlets in our huge 
riverbeds, through which the accumu- 
lated torrents may find their way back 
to their ocean home ; these are to us 
the rule and not the exception. Nor is 
the English farmer, banished from his 
fields, as is his American brother, near- 
ly one half the year, by winters of the 
h'orrible severity of those which bind 
our soils in their icy shackles. Ditch- 
ing and draining, which may be per- 
formed in England after all other labor 
is ended for the season, during their 
comparative mild winter, is impractica- 
ble against our adamantine frosts of four 
feet deep. Their soil, too, better than 
the general average of ours, never har- 
dened by beating rains, nor baked by 
fervid suns, yields more easily and kind- 
ly to implements of tillage. But then, 
to contend with all hindrances, we have 
the great advantage of Vjringing into im- 
mediate conflict with the soil a much 
better agricultural population. 

There are with us no owners of huge 
estates, no middlemen leasers, and no 
degraded laborers. Our farmer is the 
owner of his land, his house, his barns, 
his tools, and his stock, and he is the 
laborer on his own acres, and whatever 
help he employs, are his sons or his 
hired men, and he and they all work to- 
gether. Being, moreover, men of V)etter 
education (God ])rosper the common 
schools ! ) than their compeers of the old 
country, they bring to assist them in 
their work the help of mind far more 
matured. Ours are descended from a 
race of men, C!od-feaiing and God- serv- 
ing, who, " accustomed in their own na- 
tive land to no more than a plain coun- 
try life and the innocent trade of hus- 
bandry," followed, in their voluntary 
exile here, both from choice and nece.s- 
sity, the same harmless occupation. 
Their difficulties and their danger.s were 
equally terrible, -and would have dis- 
couraged any men other than those of 
the iron will and unflinching nerve, and 
the steady perseverance which marked 



26 



AGRICULTURAL. 



the primitive fathers of New-England. 
No imaginings of ours can picture the 
intense agony of their suiferings. Rude 
cabins, affording a ruder shelter, rude 
storehouses and rude fortifications were 
the earliest doings of these early days of 
our country. For years, sweeping 
through their ranks, death stalked with 
merciless sickle, and the living could 
scarcely bury the dead, or the whole 
care for the sick. All evils pressed upon 
them but despair, and all comfort for- 
sook them but the comforting assurance 
that God cared for them. Their first 
acts, after the weary and dreary winter 
which dated their landing had worn it- 
self away, and nearly worn them to 
death, were acts of tillage to secure the 
naked necessities of life, and so fruitless, 
did their early harvests prove, that even 
in the third year of their settlement their 
supplies were so scanty, that they often 
*' knew not at night, where to have a bit 
for the morning." A lobster, a fish, a 
few clams, or quahogs, a cup of cold wa- 
ter were frequently all the meagre hos- 
pitalities they could extend to any new 
comers. 

Ah, my friends, in the midst of our 
fullness, how can we realize their desti- 
tution! In the midst of our success, 
how can we realize their weakness ! As 
little as in the midst of our ii'religion 
and our ingratitude, for like Jeshuran, 
we have " waxed fat and we kick," we 
can realize the intensity of their confi- 
dent hope, and the fervency of their 
piety. Out of these small beginnings, 
these simplest elements of all colonizings, 
a result has been matured, out-roman- 
cing the wildest imaginings, and a peo- 
ple whose influence must be felt in all 
coming ages ©f the world. 



CHINESE SUGAR CANE. 
Last spring, through the kindness of 
Col. B. P. Johnson, I received a paper 
of Chinese Sugar Cane Seed, which I 
planted at the time of planting my corn, 
on the 2Gth of May, It was planted the 
the same as the corn in hills, about three 
feet each way, with from four to six 
grains in a hill. The ground was quite 
gravelly and stony, being on a diluvial 
formation. The grouod was also quite 
rich, being a sod where cattle had run 
more or less for years. In ten or twelve 
days the young plant begun to show, 



but appeared very feeble. At the time 
of first hoeing one would suppose it 
would amount to nothing. The whole 
field of corn and cane was much injured 
by worms — a number of hills wholly 
gone. The cane did not fairly start to 
grow till after the middle of July, when 
it grew very rapidly till the middle of 
September — a majority of stalks send- 
ing out two large suckers. The stalks 
were about ten feet high and much thick 
er than any I had seen. On the morn- 
ing of the 30th of September our first 
killing frost came, that stopped all vege- 
tation. The cane at that time looked as 
much as two weeks of being ripe — hard- 
ly a seed had begun to turn black. On 
the 5th of October we cut the cane at 
the ground, stripped the leaves, and cut 
near two feet of the tops off", and drew 
the stalks and run them through a 
scrach cider mill, and pressed in the 
cider press. The yield of juice was as 
much as fifteen gallons, from about 400 
stalks, the whole boiled away in a large 
kettle out doors. After being cleansed 
with lime and skimmed a number of 
times, the boiling was continued till 
there was about one and a half gallons, 
nearly equal in goodness to West India 
molasses. If the plant had been ripe and a 
different process gone through with, the 
result would have been much better. It 
is well worth raising for cattle alone. 
R. Howell. 
Nichols, Dec. 14th, 1857. 



WHEAT PER ACRE. 
The London Ecotiomist says : " The Eng- 
lish wheat crop is remarkably good, of 
unusually fine quality, and the weight fully 
up to sixty-four pounds per bushel. In 
Kent and Essex, the produce is from forty- 
six to fifty-six bushels per acre. In the 
Midland districts the yield is forty-four 
bushels to the acre. In the north, north- 
eastern and western districts the growth 
may be considered the best on record. 
Hence it would be no exaggeration to state 
that England has produced this year near- 
ly, if not quite, eight million bushels more 
wheat than in 1856. The Economist does 
not anticipate any great reduction of price 
in consequence of this great produce, but 
says there will probably be a proportional 
increase in consumption. 



AGRICULTURAL. 



27 



BREEDS OF CATTLE. 




We purpose to give in a few short ar- 
ticles, in this and succeeding numbers, 
some of the distinctive characteristics of 
the leading breeds of cattle. Our design 
is not to draw upon what others have 



said, but to give in brief our own im- 
pressions. Not professing to be a cattle 
man, and not having had of late much 
experience in stock growing, we have 
nevertheless had our e3'es and ears 




28 



AGRICULTURA L 



open to the importance of the subject, 
and have enjoyed pretty extensive op- 
portunities for observation. With these 
remarks, we shall give our opinion free- 
ly about the leading breeds, not expect- 
ing to agree with everybody, and quite 
willing that what we say should go for 
its worth only. In the meantime our 
columns shall be open on this subject to 
all candid discussion, as well from those 
disagreeing as from those agreeing with 
us. Will the advocates and the oppo- 
nents of the several breeds give us short 
articles, presenting the results of their 
experience and observation ? 

Our cuts will be of advantage in help- 
ing to fix in the mind of those not fami- 
liar with the appearance of the different 
breeds, the more striking peculiarities of 
each. We shall not aim at an exhibi- 
tion of the finest specimens — those ne- 
ver seen but in the stalls of mere fan- 
ciers, kept only because they are beau- 
tiful to look upon, and give the owner a 
pleasing notoriety. To see these you 
must not look at an engraving, but upon 
the living animal, for no engraving can 
do full justice. We shall endeavor ra- 
ther to represent, in our cuts, a fair re- 
presentative sample of the breed — well 
conditioned, but not much superior to 
what should be seen on all farms, such 
as we believe will be seen every where, 
iis soon as the advantage of keeping 
good cattle and keeping them well is un- 
derstood. We begin with the race of 
which we think the least. The cuts 
over this article represent an Alder- 
ney Bull and an Alderney Cow. A 
variety of this breed is called the Im- 
proved Jersey ; and this we believe is 
an improvement upon the old Normandy 
cattle, or the Alderneys, as they are 
called, from the island whence many of 
them have come ; but the same tenden- 
cies and general characteristics belong 
to both, and when we speak of Alderneys 
we mean the Normandy cattle, under 
whatever changes they have undergone. 
The color is light red, dun, yellow. 



fawn color, and generally varies much 
on the different parts, sometimes spot- 
ted, black and white, black and yellow, 
and but seldom in such a way as to give 
in our eyes a pleasing effect. In size 
they are small — considerably smaller 
than the original Normandy cattle from 
which they sprung. Their shape is any- 
thing but good — long, slim necked, big 
bellied, rump short and small, hollow 
back, thin in the brisket, and exceeding- 
ingly feeble, frail looking. In appear- 
ance they have one redeeming quality — 
a bright, beautiful, gazelle, or fawn eye ; 
and for practical use they have some re- 
deeming qualities. One is that they 
give milk of a very superior quality, 
little in proportion to their feed, for they 
eat like Pharoah's lean kine, and are 
usually about as lean, but remarkably 
fine, adapted to family use, and if pro- 
perly cared for, they give milk nearly 
the whole year. This commends them 
for such families as keep a single cow, 
and can afford to supply themselves at all 
times with a choicer article of milk than 
can otherwise be obtained. Their milk is 
excellent for butter ; and no doubt some 
specimens of these cows are profitable 
for the dairy. The veteran editor of the 
Massachusetts^ Ploughman still aflirras 
that his favorite Alderney cow gives 
milk, four quarts of which will make a 
pound of butter. But the quantity in 
most cases is small, and we do not be- 
lieve that, with rare exceptions, the Al- 
derneys can ever become desirable for 
the dairy. The cows are gentle, but for 
the bulls, if highly kept, it is necessary 
to look out. 

Another half-way redeeming quality 
is, that they fatten easily and quickly 
when dried, though one would suppose, 
from seeing them in milking order, that 
they never could be fattened. Their 
principal excellence, we believe, is for 
the one purpose, before spoken of, that 
of affording the finest, richest milk to 
families keeping but one cow, and desir- 
ing a home supply with the least possi- 



AGRICULTURAL 



29 



ble intermission. We would recommend 
them for this object and for no other ; 
and we sincerely hope their blood will 
never be commingled with the general 
stock of this country. 

Any admirer of this breed may over- 
throw evei'y word we have said, in our 
future numbers, if he can ; and if we feel 
obliged to oppose his views, we will be 
a fair opponent. 

The cuts above do this breed a little 
more than justice, as far as we can judge 
from samples we have met with in this 
country and abroad, especially that of 
the male. We can not admire them. 
—Ed. 



AYERS' WATER ELEVATOR. 

Toe Wisconsin Farmer thus describes 
a contrivance by which cattle are ex- 
pected to draw their own water, while ! 
the owner warms his toes by a good fire 
and reads his agricultural paper, or is at 
liberty to attend to other business. It 
says : — " A platform eighteen feet long, 
and three or four feet wide, is keyed at 
the gi'ound at one end, and suspended 
on puliies at the other ; these pullies are 
upon a wrought iron shaft, with a wheel 
in the center, four feet in diameter, over 
which runs a rope, suspending a bucket. 
While this platform is raised, the bucket 
is under water in the well ; the weight 
of the animal causes the platform to 
sink, turning, in its descent, the wheel, 
whicli brings up the bucket. The water 
is discharged from a pipe at the bottom, 
into a trough before the animal. Under 
the platform is fixed a leaking air cush- 
ion, which causes it to sink to its bear- 
ings very gradually, and without jar. 
The descent of the platform is propor- 
tioned to the depth of the well. One 
foot of descent causes twelve feet rise of 
the bucket. A simple system of valves 
in the bucket, causes the water to dis- 
charge from it while in the well, until 
t!ie weight of a light animal is suflBcient 
to counterbalance the weight of water, 
when the valve closes, and all the water 



that the weight of the animal will move, is 
brought up. .In ordinary wells the water 
elevated is about one pound for every 
twelve of the animal on the platform, 
which is more than is required, being al- 
ways an excess, which can, by a water 
pipe, be carried into another trough, or 
back into the well." 



TRUTH OR FICTION— WHICH. 

A WRITER in the Rural New-Yorker, 
over the very respectable name cf Plow- 
handle, one, it would seem, who eschews 
roguery, yet for once consented to have 
a hand in it, just like a great many 
would-be-honest people, says: 

CoL. Moore: — Some years ago I got 
acquainted with one of your contributors 
who edited the Wool Groicer, and he 
used to put me in print, I must say my 
vanity was flattered by seeing my name 
printed in the paper, with some things I 
said and some I didn't say, and we've 
kept the papers ever since. After all, 
everybody likes a little fame, but some 
are satisfied with a smaller amount than 
others. Well, I have not the editor any 
more to set me out, 'so I have been 
thinking I would just try and see if you 
would not put me into the Rural on my 
omi hook — especially as I want to tell 
you all about my going to the State Fair 
at Buffalo the other day. 

Concludes to go. 
As it was not so far but what we could 
go with our own team, mother and I 
concluded we would hitch up and have 
a week to see the sights and some cou- 
sins we had not seen for a long time. 
Mother (that's wife, you know) thought 
we ought to take something to the Fair. 
I told her to take a tub of her butter, but 
she said she didn't think it was good 
enough, but thought I might take some 
of the .stock. But I thought it would be 
a great bother. However, Sam was 
pretty strong in the faith that we could 
beat everybody on horses, and wanted to 
take old Nance. She's a right smart 
beast, is that old mare, you may depend. 

Takes the mare. 
Well, we packed off Sam, for I was 
willing to give the boy a holiday. It 
does the boys great good to attend these 
kind of Fairs, I do believe, after seeing 
all I saw there. 



80 



AGRICULTURAL. 



Goes in. 

We got safely to town Monday night, 
and Tuesday I went up early to the Fair 
grounds to see what was going on. I 
got in and hunted up Sam, and found 
he'd got the mare entered, and had got 
his eard on her head, and a good stall, 
and all things comfortable. The animal 
arrangements were first-rate generally, 
and during all the time of the Fair the 
supply of fodder was good. I think that 
Maj. Patrick, who was everybody in 
managing things, a trump sort of a man. 

Hears something. 

As I was standing up near the busi- 
ness office in the crowd, I heard a cou- 
ple of men talking about premiums. 
One said to the other : 

" Are you an exhibitor ?" 

" Yes." 

" So am T, and we had better look to 
the committees," 

" Why so ?" 

" You see the committees are never all 
full, and if you are on hand at the big 
tent when they are called, it's easy to 
slip in a friend, which is a mighty nice 
thing sometimes." 

"Well, I am showing a patent for 
making cowcumbers, and if I can get the 
premium it will make my fortune." 

" And I am showing a new kind of 
bob-tailed hens, and a premium won't 
set me back." 

" Well, you get me on to your com- 
mittee, and I will name you for mine." 

"All right; go in to win when you 
can." 

Thinks I, perhaps if that's the way 
the thing leans I may as well take care 
of myself as anybody else. Everybody 
for himself seems to be the rule on these 
occasions. So off I streaked it to the 
cattle pons to find Smith, who is my 
neighbor, you know. Smith is in the 
patent bull line. [Mr. P. emdently 
means '■'■ improveciyi^ Says I, "Smith, 
you're showing bulls, and I am showing 
old Nance, and I guess if merit counts 
we can win." And that's the talk here 
on paper. Then I told him what I'd 
heard about the committee. 

" Is that so ?" 

" Exactly." 

" Well, I think old Nance is the best 
mare in the yard." 

"And you've got the best bull on the 
ground." 

Then I told him that we must be up 
at the tant in time. 



Well, sure enough, when the commit- 
tees were made up I was on Smith's bull 
committees, and he was on the mare com- 
mittee. 

The Committee goes out. 

The head man took the book as had 
the things in it, and we were all intro- 
duced to each other, and went down to 
look at the bulls. We were on the red 
bulls. So we went along and looked at 
them, and I didn't say much till we came 
to Smith's bull, and I looked at him 
pretty carefully, pulled his tail, punched 
my fingers into his ribs, and went 
through the motions as I had seen the 
others. Says I, " that's a bull that looks 
like it." Smith had combed him all over 
with a fine-toothed comb, and brushed 
him with a hair brush, and he did look 
slick, for he was just as fat as a hog. 
And fi-om all I saw, I think fat at fairs, 
like M'^hat the lawyer said about charity, 
covers a multitude of sins. 

Gets the horns poked at him. 

Just as I said that, the fellow who had 
a bull in the next stall comes up to me 
pretty fierce, and says he : 

" What do you know about bulls ?" 

"Well," says I, "I think I know 
what they are used for in my section." 

"May be," says he, "you are on the 
committee ?" 

" I have that honor," says I. 

"Oh! well, that makes a difference, 
but you ain't the man I expected to see," 
says he. 

" Very likely," says I. 

" But," says he, "that bull hain't got 
any pedigree." 

"Well," says I, " he had a father and 
mother, didn't he?" 

"Oh! yes, but then nobody knows 
who they were." 

"Well, then nobody knows but they 
were just as likely as your bull's pa- 
rents." 

" But, sir, look at my bull's pedigree. 
There it is, sir. Got by irapoited Shirt- 
tail, out of Skimmilk by Thunder, etc.," 
and he showed a string of names as long 
as your arm. 

" Well," says I to the committee, 
" are we to judge the pedigree or the an- 
imal ?" 

And they said, "The animal, of 
course." 

" Then," said I to the fellow, " will 
your bull get better stock than this ?" 

" Of course he will," says he, "for he's 
got a pedigree, and that bull hain't." 



AGRICULTURAL 



31 



"Well," says I, "your bull has got 
somebody to brag for him, and the other 
hasn't, that's certain." And that sort o' 
knocked him. " But," says I, " I've 
known people who felt grand over their 
pedigree, and I've seen a heap of people 
who couldn't go farther back than their 
father and mother that banged them all 
to pieces for smartness, llandsome is 
that handsome docs," says I, "and, as 
the hymn-book sa3's, * a man's a man for 
a' that.' Pedigree go to grass, I go in 
for the animal." 

Smith's hill wiiin. 

When we got through and looked at 
our marks the other two had Smith's 
bull second. I had him first. So we 
talked it over, and finally, as they didn't 
care much about it, they altered the fig- 
ures and gave Smith the first premium, 
which I think was right. 

And the old mare. 

Smith had a great time over old Nance. 
It turned out that each of the other two 
committeemen had friends whose mares 
were to be judged, and they pretty soon 
picked out their favorites. So he kept 
still and let them talk, and they soon got 
into a quarrel, and then they appealed 
to Smith, and he kinder sided with one, 
but thought old Nance was the best 
mare, and finally, to keep the other from 
getting first, they sided with him, and 
he went in for both of theirs. Smith 
says he saw somfe queer things on that 
committee. 

You see we got our premiums, but 
you don't see, perhaps, Col., as well as 
I do, that it wants something more than 
merit to be sure of winning. 

Gets irreverent. 
The State of New- York is a great 
State, the biggest in the Union, and the 
New- York State Agricultural Society is 
a great institution, but if there ain't some 
ol the allliredest big humbugs crawhng 
around its Annual Fair, then I'm a teapot. 

Concludes. 
I want to tell you a heap more, but I 
have used up so nmch paper I fear you 
won't have patience to print my letter. 
Yours to command, 

John Plowhandle. 



Labor and capital judiciously applied 
to the improvement of agriculture, are a 
no less sure investment than in any 
other business. 



SUGGESTIONS ABOUT AGRICUL- 
TURAL JOURNALS. 

A CORRESPONDENT suggests, what we 
are willing to consider, and that our bre- 
thren of the press should take into con- 
sideration also, if they think proper, as 
follows : 

I have noticed what I consider three 
defects in all agricultural journals I am 
acquainted with. The first is, there is 
too little space devoted to horses, their 
breeds, qualities, and diseases. An an- 
imal so indispensably useful surely de- 
serves more notice than he generally re- 
ceives. Secondly, farm buildings re- 
ceive too little attention of a kind suita- 
ble for the mass of farmers. As a mat- 
ter of course we get a few plans of la- 
borer's cottages and suburban residences, 
but comparatively few good models of 
farm houses, suited to the majority of 
country farmers. A special department 
occasionally set apart to the lay ing out of 
grounds and placing the buildings, stat- 
ing the proper distances from the public 
highway, the distance between house 
and barn, hog-house, hen-house, shop, 
etc., and the most advantageous way of 
placing each, would be of value to the 
community, as well as the internal ar- 
rangement and construction of barns and 
all other necessary outbuildings. Third- 
ly, agricultural tools, implements, and 
machinery are too much neglected; that 
is, the ever-day necessities, such as 
plows, harrows, cultivators, horse-rakes, 
straw-cutters, corn-shellers, etc., are not 
suflBciently known to the mass of larm- 
ers. For instance, the latest improved 
Eagle plows, Ramsey's and other newly 
invented harrows, Boughton's and other 
wheel cultivators, Gilbert's straw-cutter, 
etc., etc., are not to be found in any ag- 
ricultural periodical within my know- 
ledge. It appears to me that good and 
properly placed buildings, improved and 
labor-saving implements, beautifid, pow- 
erful, and enduring teams of horses suit- 
ed to the road and farm, arc three things 
that outweigh, ynih the exception of a 



32 



AGRICULTURAL. 



good soil, nearly all other requisites of 
successful farming, and are first and 
foremost. 



LICE ON YOUNG CATTLE. 

Look closely into the coats of young 
cattle now, and let no vermin live on 
their necks and backs. It is an easy 
matter to kill those lice, and as all lousy 
come out poor in the spring, it is bar- 
barous to let such small mites as lice 
have their own way through the winter. 

Farmers find out in the spring that 
their calves are poor and lousy, and they 
make a stir for a remedy. 

Any greasy matter, well rubbed in, 
will kill these lice. Ashes sifted on their 
backs will do it. Yellow snuif costs but 
little, and is better than the juice of to- 
bacco. Fine sand sifted on them will 
drive off lice ; the only objection to sand 
i-; that it causes an itching on old cattle 
in the spring. — Ploughman. 



APPLICATION OF MANURES. 

It is now pretty generally agreed 
among practical farmers that manures 
of all kinds may be buried too deep in 
the furrow — so deep with a deep plow 
as to. entirely destroy their efficacy for 
a number of seasons, if not forever. The 
reason why this is so is not very satis- 
factorily explained — for it is proved that 
manures never work down to any great 
depth, else the subsoil would be valuable 
after many years of deep manuring. 

One great point with farmers should 
be to prevent loss of their barn manures 
by checking great fermentation. Strong 
manures heaped up, soon ferment and 
rairn unless much extra matter is mixed 
in the pile. Some heaps heat so much 
as to turn white. They are "fire-fanged," 
as the old gardeners used to express it, 
and they are almost worthless when this 
excessive heating has been permitted. 
We incline to think that more of the es- 
sence of our manures is wasted by this 
fermentation — this heating process — 
than in all other modes of waste. 

It is certain that excellent crops of 
corn are grown where the manure from 
the barnyard was buried no deeper than 
;. common harrow would bury it when 
spread on the surface. This we often 
see on dry ground and in dry summers, 
and with only a moderate dressing of 
manure. 

So we find that all kinds of manure 



spread in October and November on 
grass land or meadow land, work well 
and increase the crop abundantly though 
exposed through the winter to all kinds 
of weather. 

The truth seems to be that not much 
of the essence of barn manures is lost 
by evaporation when they are spread 
out where no fermentation takes place. 

Still if we would secure all the essence 
of barn manures, we must mix them 
with fresh earth immediately, or in the 
yard, or in the field with a light furrow 
or a harrow. When this is done no ef- 
fluvium, or ammonia, is perceived to 
pass away. — Mass. Ploitgliman. 



AN EXTENSIVE FARMER. 

It is said by a correspondent of the 
Silver Creek' (Texas) Mirror that Col. 
Jacob CarroU, of Texas, is the largest 
farmer in the United States. He owns 
250,000 acres of land (nearly 400 square 
miles) in that and adjoining counties. 
His home plantation contains 8,000 acres, 
nearly all valuable bottom lands, along 
the Gaudalupe River. On this farm he 
has over 600 acres in cultivation, on 
which he raises annually about 300 bales 
of cotton, worth at the plantation from 
$75 to $100 per bale, and 20,000 bushels 
of corn, worth about 50 cents per bushel. 
He has a force of about fifty field hands, 
and he works about sixty mules and 
horses, and fifteen yoke of oxen. Col. 
Carroll has, on his immense ranges of 
pasture lands, about one thousand horses 
and mules, worth $50,000 ; one thousand 
head of cattle, worth $70,000 ; six hun- 
dred hogs, worth $2,000 ; fifteen jacks, 
worth 9,000 ; three hundred Spanish 
mares, worth $15,000 ; fifty jennies, 
worth $2,000 ; and five stallions, worth 
$2,500. Col. Carrell's property, in stock 
and negroes, is worth at least, $150,000 ; 
and the value of his landed estate will 
swell the amount to over half a million 
of dollars. His annual income from the 
sale of stock amounts fi-om $5,000 to 
$10,000 ; and fi-om the sale of cotton, to 
from $15,000 to $20,000. 



ARRIVAL OF LLAMAS IN NEW- 
YORK. 

The brig E. Drummond, which ar- 
rived at this port yesterday from Aspin- 
wall, brought a flock of forty-two llamas, 
consigned to James Fisher & Co. They 
were purchased by a French gentleman 



AGRICULTURAL. 



33 



for a company in this city, for the pur- 
pose, we believe, 'of introducing the 
breed on the mountainous lands of New- 
England. The wool of the llama is ex- 
ceedingly valuable, and as the animal is 
very hurdy and flourishes in high moun- 
tain regions, delighting in pure, rarified 
air, and feeding, like the camel, on al- 
most anything in the shape of grass, no 
matter how coarse, it is possible that the 
breed may be planted successfully in the 
sterile regions of New-England. 

The llama is probably familiar to most 
people who have been visitors to the 
traveling managerie, as a specimen is 
usually to be fovuid there. It belongs to 
the group ruminantia, of the family of 
camel. Indeed, they are known to nat- 
uralists as the camelus lama, and are 
frequently called the camel of the new 
world. They are found exclusively in 
South America, and in the greatest abun- 
dance on the Andes. They are chiefly 
used by the natives as beasts of burthen, 
though they can not carry more than 
about a hundred pounds weight, and do 
not travel far without rest. In the tran- 
sit of treasure from the mines of Potosi 
they have been found most valuable from 
the eai'liest period. The llama is much 
smaller than the camel of the East of 
Europe. It has no hump, but in shape 
it much resembles the camel. The neck 
is long and arched, and the face, in mild- 
ness of expression and the peculiar itj^ of 
the split lip, is precisely like that of the 
camel. It rarely measures more than 
three feet in height. It is covered with 
a thick fine wool, which makes the ani- 
mal impervious to cold, and renders 
housing quite unnecessary. Like the 
camel and the ox, its feet are cloven ; but 
unlike the former animal, it has no com- 
mon horny sole, uniting the toes at the 
bottom. Appended to the foot behind 
is a kind of spear, which assists it in 
moving over precipices and rugged paths. 
It is accordingly as sure-footed as the 
goat, and, l)eiiig very agile, it is ex- 
tremely difficult to capture it when it 
takes to the mountain crags, as it inva- 
riably docs when jiursued. It is found 
much oftener on the northern than the 
southern side of the Andes, and is said 
to become vigorous in proportion to the 
coldness of its situation. Thus, though 
essentially a tropical animal, the cold- 
ness of our northern climate is not likely 
to prove detrimental to its increase. 

The animals on the brig E. Drummond 
were taken from the Cordilleras, and 
3 



were sent from Guayaquil to xVspinwall 
by railroad, where Capt. Chapman, of 
the Drummond, took them in charge. 
Tliere were seventy-one of them shipped, 
but owing to severe weather twenty-nine 
died and were thrown overboard, leaving 
only forty-two alive. These, however, 
are in good condition. This is a novel 
importation ; but if the experiment 
should prove successful, it may become 
one of some importance to the improve- 
ment of the growth of wool on this con- 
tinent. — 2^. V. Herald. 



THE FALL. 

Recent financial troubles have pro- 
duced their effects upon the agriculture 
of this country. From the Southern to 
the Northern extremities of our Union, 
agriculture has declined, not in merit 
but by way of pecuniary disasters. 
Witness the fall in breadstuffs, in the 
staple products of the soil generally, and 
then you are convinced that we have 
either heretofore paid too mueh for food, 
or that we are now getting too little for 
it. For the good of humanity, for the 
good of the poor, provisions are to-day 
high enough to satisfy all reasonable 
minds. There are some kinds of food 
that are too low ; wheat, for instance, but 
you may rely upon it that beef and pork 
are up as high as any rational mind could 
ask for. 

The great "West is full of cheap corn, 
in many localities it being worth only 
twenty cents per bushel, and, therefore, 
can not pork be afforded in New-York 
market at $6.00 or $6.25 per hundred 
pounds dressed weight? The fall would 
seem to be equal upon most everything. 
Look, if you please, at the manufactur- 
ing interests. Now cotton and woolen 
goods have gone down in price almost 
equally with barley and wheat. Indeed, 
cast an eye towards the mechanical de- 
partments, and you are equally surjiriscd 
to Ond those trades amazingly depressed, 
with no activity to brace them up. 

Happily for the prosperity of the 
country, some of our machine shops, 
woolen and cotton factories have again 
commenced the noise of active labor. 



u 



AGRICULTURAL. 



But the great fall to which attention 
has akeady been called, will not last al- 
ways. Matters are bound to regulate 
themselves, and I believe that money 
will again be plenty within a short time. 
Farm products will again sell with the 
same activity that formerly chai'acterized 
their sale, though they may not bring as 
high prices. For the past few months, 
it has been almost impossible to dispose 
of anything, so tight has been the money 
market. Everybody "most" has got 
something to sell, but no buyers appear. 
Instead of the purchasers running to 
you for your products, you are compelled 
to run to them, and then are put off 
with the answer that "we don't buy 
now, sir ; our doors are closed," &c. 

Mark our prediction, that unless some 
remarkable change takes place between 
now and June next, farmers will not sow 
nor reap more than one-half as much as 
they did in the year of 1857. Sluggish- 
ness always marks the energy of the 
country after the fall of provisions. 

But I believe the community at large 
will be better off by reason of the low 
price of produce, provided the working 
classes will consent to work in propor- 
tion to the value of provisions. Now 
look at the matter, — wheat has been 
sold in Oswego this winter for seventy- 
eight cents per bushel — " the Milwaukee 
Club." What must that wheat have been 
bought for per bushel in Wisconsin? 
Probably fifty or sixty cents. 

Bi*t these prices are in accordance 
with the times, and hence we shall have 
to succumb to them, and go on, paying 
but little attention to them, if we would 
be prosperous as a people. 

Whether lands in the Eastern States 
will go down in price in consequence of 
low prices, I am illy able to say. I am 
confident lands in the West must be 
lower than they have been. Railroad 
companies have raised their prices for 
carrying ft-eight, and every cent so add- 
ed must, I believe, finally be paid by 
the Western farmer. And it does seem 



as though speculators, in the West, will 
cease to be operators any longer, parti- 
cularly in lands. These sharTcs must 
have lost large sums in lands which, of 
course, nobody cares for except those 
who are directly interested. The whole 
people have been taught a good and glo- 
rious lesson. Agricultural interests are 
now dormant, and will be for some time to 
come. The people can live cheaply ; the 
poor can procure the necessaries of life 
reasonably. Men are not so amazingly 
gi'eedy after wealth as they were one 
year since. The farming world, and the 
rest of the people, are, I think, taking 
more rest and comfort than they were 
under old prices. And on the whole, 
though we may not get rich so fast, will 
not the great fall be a blessing to our 
country ? 
Baldwinsville, N. Y., Jan., 1858. 



WASTE OF FERTILIZERS. 

" The amount of manure wasted in 
the United States, is a subject of amaze- 
ment and alarm. A judicious observer 
has put it at one hundred millions of 
dollars worth annually, passing off into 
the air in lost gasses, or washing away 
from barn-yards out into the road, or 
moulding away unnoticed in secluded 
corners all over the farms. And the 
worsts yet truest view of all this, is, that 
this great amount of fertilizing material, 
came originally from the soil, and ought 
to be restored to it, for if it be not, it is 
a theft of the worst sort, impoverishing 
both the land and the owner thereof 
All decaying vegetable substances when 
they shall have reached that point 
of decay best suited to the farmer's con- 
venient handling, must be restored to 
the soil, there to complete their decay 
to such perfect degree, that Nature can 
again spread them upon her ample board, 
at her great annual feeding and feasting 
of her multifarious vegetable childi'en." 

So said Gen. H. K. Oliver, at the late 
Fair of the New-Hampshire State Agri- 
cultural Society ; and we do not believe 
that he at all over estimates ; for though 
a hundred million is a large sum, still it 
is but a few dollars for each farmstead 
in the United States; and we should 



AGRICULTURAL 



36 



think that the aggregate of individual 
losses from bad management with ma- 
nures would be greater rather than less. 
This is not however so much lost out 
of the world ; nor is it lost for all time. 
The gasses that pass into the air, are re- 
turned in the rains. It is true that a 
portion of them fall into the ocean, and 
therefore do not immediately promote 
vegetable growth. Other portions fall 
so as to promote a less valuable gi-owth 
than if the application were made by a 
wise cultivator. They are undoubtedly 
very widely diffused, and but a small 
poj tion of them, can it be supposed, will 
find their way back to the same farm 
from which they ascended, or to other 
farms with much immediate, practical 
benefit. Still not all is lost. The am- 
monia which ascends from a fermenting 
mass of manure, being arrested and 
brought down in rains, benefits, not ap- 
preciably, because of its wide diflfusion, 
V)ut really, a thousand farms, and some 
of them at great distances from where it 
had its origin. But its benefits are pro- 
bably not half as great in the the aggre- 
gate as if it had been kpet on the farm 
from which it escaped. Practically, 
then, it is not materially incorrect, to 
speak of the escaping gases, as lost or 
wasted. 

It is so with the soluble salts, which 
are washed away into the streets. Those 
are not absolutely lost. They are not 
without effect. Vegetation of some 
kind, more generally useless, is promot- 
ed by them. If any of them find their 
way into the brook, its banks extract 
them from the water, and are made to 
produce more grass either for the scythe 
or for grazing beasts, and even the fish, 
all the way to the ocean and in the ocean 
itself, receive from them a greater growth 
and a higlier flavor. But these will be 
regarded rather as fanciful than real re- 
turn.s, and we will give it up, that the 
soluble salts which tiow from the farm- 
yard into the street or the brook are 
about as good as lost. To say the least, 



they are likely to be kept out of the 
market for a long time to come. 

It is much so with those substances, 
of which Col. Oliver speaks as "moulder- 
ing away unnoticed in secluded corners 
all over the farm." If let alone, they 
will eventually be turned into food for 
man or beast. Such is the law of God, 
and no human negligence can always 
prevent. We or our descendants shall 
sooner or later consume that beef's skull, 
that lies in the corner of the fence. If 
ground fine, mixed with half its weight 
of sulphuric acid, and put into the soil 
now, we should have it back next fall in 
the form of wheat, corn, or some other 
product. If let alone it will sooner or 
later come to the same thing. But it 
may be a very long time first; and there- 
fore we think Col. Oliver quite right 
in speaking of such things as lost or 
wasted ; and we do nor believe it extra- 
vagant to estimate the losses fi'om the 
neglect or wrong management of the fer- 
tilizers within the reach of the farmers 
of this country, as high as one hundred 
millions of dollars a year. It may seem 
wild to some, but less so, we have not 
the least doubt, to those who have re- 
flected on the subject, than to the un- 
thinking. — Ed. 



WALL ROSES. 

The secret of growing roses against 
a wall might be packed in a lady's thim- 
ble. A two feet deep border of strong 
loam, four or five feet wide, to be as rich 
as rotten dung can make it ; the border 
to be thorouglily soaked with soft pond- 
water twice a week in dry weather, and 
when the roses are in bloom, to keep 
them thin in the branches, as if they 
ihey were peach trees, and to play tlie 
water-engine against them as for a house 
n fire, from the first appearance of in- 
sects till no more come. There is a rea- 
son for everything under the sun, and 
the reason for insects attacking roses in 
general, and those on walls more partic- 
ularly, is from too nuich dryness at the 
roots causing the juices to be more pal- 
atable through the action of the kavte. 



36 



HORTICULTURA L 



(ortinUtural 



CALENDAR FOR JANUARY. 

FLOWERS. 

Bulbous Hoots. — Those who have not 
purchased bulbous roots may yet be in 
time to get some at the seed stores, such 
as Crocus, Hyacinth, Narcissus, Tulips 
and others. These will do well if now 
put into pots in a compost of thoroughly 
decayed stable manure, white or river 
sand and garden mould in equal parts. 
When potted they should be placed 
in a cellar or shed, or under the stage of 
of a greenhouse, and covered over their 
tops with six inches of ashes, sawdust or 
sand. In a month's time they may be 
taken out, a few at a time, and brought 
into the parlor or greenhouse to bloom. 
Ttiey wiU require water every two or 
three days, and should be near the light. 
Hyacinths may be grown also in glasses. 
The water should have a pinch of salt in 
it, and should be changed every week, 
using tepid water the temperature of 
the room. The glass should not be filled 
so full as to let the bottom of the bulb 
quite touch the water. 

The G^reenhouse. — Give water only 
■when really required; do not spill it 
about the house. Give air whenever the 
temperature outside is above freezing, 
for a few hours in the middle of the day, 
bat shut up early (by 3 o'clock). Avoid 
letting in drafts of wind. Air is best ad- 
mitted at the top. 

K frost happens to get in, syringe the 
plants all over with quite cold water, and 
sliade from the sun until the frost is out 
of the house. Do not raise the tempera- 
ture suddenly by heat, or the frozen 
plants will die. The art is to get the 
frost out of them as gradually as possible, 
which is best done by ice-cold water. 

If. B. — These remar'ks apply to green- 
houses that are hept at low temperature, 
that is from which frost only is intend- 
ed, to he Tcept out. 



Vegetable Garden. — The vegetable 
garden should have been ridged up in 
the fall to expose the soil to the benefi- 
cial influences of the winter's frost. If 
not done, do it now if the weather permits. 
Coldframes covered with glazed sashes 
should also have been filled in October 
and November, with young cauliflowers, 
cabbages and lettuces for early spring. If 
that has been done they will require 
covering at night with mats or litter 
which should be removed in the day 
and air admitted, except in very hard 
weather. Look also to fruit trees, and 
when the snow comes tread it hard 
round their base, which helps to keep 
vermin from attacking their bark when 
the rigor of winter makes them short of 
food. 



From the Pear Culturist. 

PRODUCTION OF NEW VARIETIES 
OF PEARS. 
In their natural wild state, each of the 
different kinds of fruits, such as the 
Cherry, the Peach, the Pear, etc., con- 
sisted of one or more species, inferior in 
their original quality, or which became 
afterwards degenerated by unfavorable 
changes of climate, exhausted soils, or 
other causes. These several species, 
while in this wild and uncultivated state, 
always reproduced the same, with occa- 
sional slight modifications occasioned by 
local or incidental causes. To change, 
therefore, this naturally fixed habit of 
the tree, and obtain new and improved 
varieties of its fruit, has long been the 
subject of diligent and persevering effort 
on the part of many of the most distin- 
guished Pomologists. But it is a pro- 
cess attended with a great degree of un- 
certainty, and requiring much time and 
patience. To the interested and enthu- 
siastic culturist, however, it has peculiar 
attractions. By slow degrees he com- 
pels unwilling nature to bend to his con- 
tinued efforts. " The sour and bitter 
Crab expands into the Golden Pippin ; 
the wild Pear loses its thorns, and be- 
comes a Bergamot or a Beurre ; the Al- 
mond is deprived of its bitterness, and 



HORTICULTURAL. 



37 



the dry and flavorless Peach is at length 
a tempting and delicious fruit." Such 
are the results that attend the persever- 
ing efforts of the skilful culturist. 

To produce new and improved varie- 
ties of the Pear, Dr. Van Mons, of Bel- 
gium, so distinguished in Pomological 
science, has labored with indefatigable 
energ}' and perseverance nearly his 
whole lifetime for this object, the results 
of which are a great number of new va- 
rieties of rare excellence. II is theory, 
however, could not be expected to be 
perfect^ although much valuable instruc- 
tion has been drawn from his experience. 
His theory was briefly this. — The aim of 
nature is simply a healthy, vigorous 
state of the tree, producing nearly per- 
fect seedn for its own contiiuied propaga- 
tion. The object of culture should be, 
to reduce excess of vegetation in the 
tree, diminish the size of the secd.s, and 
increase the size and improve the quality 
of the pulp or fruit which encloses them. 
He also maintains that the older the tree 
of any cultivated variety of the Pear, the 
nearer will the seedlings produced from 
it, approach its original wild state ; while 
seedlings from the fruit of young culti- 
vated trees of good sorts, more frequent- 
ly produce improved varieties. 

Dr. Van Mons, acting on this princi- 
ple, selects his seeds from young seed- 
ling trees, sows them in his seed bed, 
where they remain until they are of a 
size sufficient to enable him to judge of 
their character. He then selects the 
most vigorous and promising, plants 
them out and patient!}^ awaits their 
fruiting. The first seeds from the best 
of these he again sows, and repeats the 
operation. Each generation comes more 
(juickly into bearing than the one pre- 
ceding it ; iha fifth sowing often coming 
into bearing in three years, and produc- 
ing fruit, in many instances, of rare ex- 
cellence. Whatever we maj^ think of 
his theory, the results, as before remark- 
ed, have been several new varieties, pro 
ductive in habit, and of delicious flavor. 
Following this plan, in order to produce 
improved varieties of the Pear, we must 
first be careful to plant the seeds of seed- 
ling Pears of healthy and vigorous 
growth, and continue the process until 
we have attained our object, viz., new 
varieties of a high degree of excellence. 

This is the Belgian method, from 
which some of the fruit culturists in Eng- 
land and our own country dissent, and 
maintain that new varieties may be ob- 



tained from the seeds of the most valua- 
ble sorts of our grafted, Pears, equally 
as good as by the Van Mons mode, and 
without his long and repeated process of 
successive plantings ; and claim that some 
of our native favorite fruits were obtain- 
ed at once from the seeds of the old 
grafted varieties. In some instances, 
this is doubtless true, but whether the 
result is from chance or otherwise, we 
can not with certainty determine. 
Should the Amateur desire to engage in 
the pleasant but somewhat tardy pro- 
cess of propagating new varieties, it 
would be advisable to employ both me- 
thods, carefully keeping each distinct 
and separate from the other, and com- 
pare the results. 

New Varieties by Fertilization. — 
This is a process for obtaining new va- 
rieties by cross impregnation, or fertiliz- 
ing the pistil of one variety with the pol- 
len of another. It was advocated and 
practised by T. A. Knight, Esq., for- 
merly President of the Horticultin-al So- 
ciety, of London, and is now generally 
practised in England, as well as by many 
of our own fruit growers, with success. 

The Pear blossom has five central or- 
gans elevated above the others, calkd 
the pistils, the upper or enlarged ex- 
tremities of each of which is called the 
stigma. These are surrounded bj^ other 
delicate thread-like organs called the sta- 
mens, supporting on their upper extrem- 
ity the anthers. These last arc little re- 
ceptacles containing the pollen or fertil- 
izing dust. In their natural operation, 
when the flowers open, the anthers be- 
come distended, and when perfectly ripe, 
burst and discharge their pollen on the 
stigma, whose gummy exterior receives 
and retains the fertilizing shower, ren- 
dering fruitful the young seed lying at 
its base. This same process artificially 
performed, by impregnating or fertiliz- 
ing the pistil of one variety of fruit with 
the pollen of another, will produce a 
fruit partaking in some degree of the 
properties of both. This is performed 
by simply clipping off, with a pair of 
fine scissors, all the stamens, (before the 
blossom is fully expanded,) of the variety 
which is intended to be impregnated, 
carefully leaving the pistils untouched, 
and when the flower is fully expanded, 
and the stigma properly matured, (which 
will be indicated by its glutinous sur- 
face,) transferring to it with a camel's 
hair pencil, the pollen of the sort with 
which it is to be crossed. This process 



88 



MECHANICAL. 



does not particularly aSeci the J'ruit, but 
the seeds partake of the nature of both 
the original sorts, and produce trees 
which yield intermediate varieties of 
new, and frequently of rare and valuable 
qualities. By this means some of the 
present excellent sorts have been ob- 
tained, both in Europe and our own 
country. 

It will be seen at once that the process 
should be performed before the stigma 
of the blossom is impregnated with its 
own pollen, or that of the surrounding 
flowers, as it is impossible after that to 
innoculate it again. To prevent this, a 
thin gauze covering should be placed 
over it for a few days before and after 
the operation, to protect it from the pol- 
len floating in the air, or from the in- 
trusion of insects, by which, sometimes, 
the flower becomes accidentally impreg- 
nated. 

HAVE YOU A CHOICE GRAPE 

CUTTING THAT YOU WANT 

TO GROW. 

Then go to the woods, dig some roots 

of a wild grape vine, cut them into pieces | 

of about six inches long, cut your choice I 

grape vine or cutting into pieces of only | 

one, or at most, two buds ; insert the j 

lower end by the common cleft grafting i 



method, into the piece of wild vine root ; 
plant it in the earth, leaving the bud of 
the cutting just level with the top of the 
ground. Every one so made will grow, 
and in two years become bearing plants. 



SHOULD WE PLANT FRUIT TREES 
IN THE HIGHWAY? 

I ANSWER yes, for several reasons ; 
the first is, there is a lack of fruit in 
this country, the demand being much 
greater than the supply ; and every fruit 
tree that is planted and properly taken 
care of will bear fruit sometime, and of 
course hel^) to supply the demand. 
Another reason is, trees properly planted 
and arranged on the side of the highway 
help to beautify it, and make it pleasant 
for those who travel on it, besides being 
an addition to the farm upon which they 
are planted, and a source of constant 
pleasure to the owner. 

Now, while I write this, I have have a 
particular Icind of fruit tree in view, 
and that is the Cherry ; — not that there 
are no others as good, but because there 
is the greatest lack of fruit at the season 
of the year when cherries are ripe, and 
because they supply food for those ti'ue 
friends of the farmer, the birds. — Qen. 
Far. 



llti^rhanintL 



METHOD OF CLEANING CASKS. 

The London Engineer describes the 
following process, which may be worth 
the notice of our agricultural friends 
who, in the manufacture of cider, etc., 
have occasion for such contrivances. A 
square frame of sufficient size is hung 
upon 'standards of suitable strength, in- 
to which a barrel is fastened, at the 
chimes, by V-shaped prongs, or any 
other convenient process, and the whole 
is made to revolve by a crank, water, or 
other cleansing mixtures being previ- 
ously poured in in suitable quantities. 
This process may be repeated as many 
times as is desirable. This may be con- 
structed by any one of tolerable mechan- 



ical genius, and will save much time and 
unpleasant labor. 



GELATINE, MANURE, ETC., FROM 
BONES. 

A PROCESS has been patented in Eng- 
land by Mr. A. E. Schonersahl for an 
improvement in the process of making 
gelatine, glue, etc., from bones. He 
first separates them from aU putrescent 
matter soluble in water, then treats the 
bones with acid, which dissolves the 
phosphates and leaves the gelatine in a 
solid state, and is easily separated. The 
water used in separating the soluble mat- 
ters is reserved for other processes which 
prepare it for application as a manure. 



MECHANICAL 



S9 



IMPROVED GAS STOVE. 
A GAS stove is formed of an outer case 
made double to contain water, or a slow- 
ly conducting material. Within this 
casing a series of vertical tubes are 
ranged round its circumference, which 
extend from the bottom to the top of the 
casing and are for the passage of air, 
which entering below becomes heated, 
ascends and escapes at the top. A pa- 
tent has been applied for. 

IMPROVED HORSESHOE. 
A PATENT has been applied for in Eng- 
land for the manufacture of horseshoes 
as follows : The corks are made tapering 
and with a small screw at the end. The 
shoe is pierced at the requisite places, 
and the cork is screwed into them. This 
may be an econorhical process, if the 
screw holds well, since tiie corks may be 
renewed without disturbing the shoe. 



MANUFACTURE OF IRON. 
Iron is one of the greatest sources of 
future wealth in this country, and the 
processes by which the ores may be 
profitably treated for the production of 
iron of various qualities, naturally re- 
ceive the careful attention of all engaged 
in such pursuits. New facts are con- 
stantly developed which vary these pro- 
cesses, more or less, and some of which 
create an important revolution in this 
department of art. Mr. Harding, of 
Leeds, Eng., has recently found an econ- 
omical method of separating the shales 
from the metallic ore. This has hitherto 
been done by spreading the ore upon the 
ground and exposing it to the action of 
the atmosphere. Mr. Harding now ex- 
poses the ore to the action of steam, and 
thus secures results in a few hours 
which have hitherto occupied months. 

HARVESTING MACHINES. 
Messrs. Cox & Newton, of Greenville, 
N. C, have secured a patent for a ma- 
chine which cuts off the ears of corn, 
leaving the stalks standing iu the field. 



WASHING MACHINES. 
We have long believed that any con- 
venient process securing a constant 
stream of water through clothes that 
need cleansing, would be exceedingly 
useful, by avoiding very much of the 
wear and tear occasioned by severe rub- 
bing. This destroys under-clothes per- 
haps quite as much as does the wearing 
of them. It is this feature which re- 
commends, to our judgment, the inven- 
tion of Mr. Thomas King. A method 
for securing this important point has 
been invented by Mr. A. Dickson, of 
Hillsborough, N. C, whose specification 
claims "the combination of the oscilla- 
ting rubber, stationary bed, and the 
pumps, arranged to act conjointly." The 
water is discharged as rapidly as it en- 
ters. 

Another recent patent, secured by Mr. 
Abraham Huffer, of Hagerstown, Md., 
includes certain contrivances for lifting 
the clothes out of the water and exposing 
them to the air, and again immersing 
them. This, it is claimed, both bleaches 
and cleanses them at the same time. 
We can not judge of the details of this 
invention, not having seen any drawings 
of it, but the idea seems to be a very 
good one. 

Mr. John D. Jenkins, Jacksonville, 111., 
has also invented an anti-friction ma- 
chine, but the means he employs are not 
published in detail. 

PRINTING PRESSES. 
Mr. Richard M. Hoe, the great king 
among inventors in this department of 
ai-t, and whose reputation is now world- 
I wide, has secured a new patent, which 
' adds to the simplicity and economy of 
I his great press. The fly-frames which 
have hitherto required some complica- 
tion of machinery, are now worked by a 
cam shaft at each end of the machine, 
which is in immediate connection with it. 



STRIPEING TOOL. 
An implement which will be found 



40 



MECHANICAL, 



very useful to painters has been patent- 
ed by Mr. J. J, McCormick, of this city, 
and Mr. George Crossingham, of Croton 
Falls. It will stripe a line of any defined 
fineness, from a mere thread to two 
inches, in straight lines or in curves. 
The paint is fed by means of a piston. 



SEGAR MACHINE. 

A PARAGRAPH has been going the 
round of the Provincial papers, stating 
that M. Practorius, of BerHn, has " con- 
structed" a machine for making segars, 
and that it rolls out 5,000 segars a day, 
and economizes both tobacco and manu- 
al labor. Upon the admitted principle 
that " honor should be given to whom 
honor is due," it is only right to state 
that the paragraph in question is not 
quite correct. It is true that M. Practo- 
rius, of Berlin, possesses such a machine, 
and that it combines all the useful quali- 
ties attributed to it; but it Avas from 
Liverpool that it was obtained. America 
claims, and is entitled to, the honor of 
the invention ; but, many years ago, a 
Liverpool firm, James Steel & Co., 78 
Duke street, purchased the patent, and 
subsequently made considerable im- 
provements in its construction and work- 
ing. The patent has many years yet to 
run, and it is still in the hands of the 
house just mentioned, who have the ex- 
clusive right of using it or permitting its 
use in the United Kingdom. M. Practo- 
rius, of Berlin, purchased his machine 
from a firm in Hamburg, to whom 
Messrs. Steel & Co. had sold it, and it 
has since been patented for the kingdom 
of Prussia. There can be no doubt of 
the ingenuity and value of the machine ; 
but while a foreign manufacturer only 
buys it, he must not be allowed to steal 
the honor of construction from England, 
or invention from America. — London 
Mechanics^ Magazine. 



WHAT WILL A GLASS OF WATER 
HOLD? 

It is generally thought that when a 
vessel is full of water any solid substance 
immersed in it will cause it to overflow, 
and such will be the case if the substance 
is not soluble in water ; but the philo- 
sophic truth, that in dissolving a body 
you do not increase the volume of the 
solvent, may be proved by a simple and 
interesting experiment. 



Saturate a certain quantity of water, 
at a moderate heat, with three ounces of 
sugar ; and when it will no longer re- 
ceive that, there is room in it for two 
ounces of salt of tartar, and after that for 
an ounce and a dram of green vitriol, 
nearly six drams of niter, the same quan- 
tity of sal ammoniac or smelling salts, 
two drams and a scruple of alum and a 
dram and a half of borax. When all 
these are dissolved in it, it will not have 
increased in volume. — Scientific Ameri- 
can. 



SWIMMING LIFE PRESERVER. 

The saving of human life, whether 
from fire or water, and the prevention 
of accident generally, is a noble and 
philanthropic aim, and every one who 
directs his attention and inventive pow- 
ers to such a purpose is to be regarded 
as a benefactor to the human race at 
large, by those who have any humanity 
in their hearts. We are happy then to 
chronicle the invention and patenting of 
an apparatus for saving life from ship- 
wreck and similar catastrophies, by A. 
J. Gibson, of Worcester, Mass. This in- 
vention consists in making a deep, broad 
belt of India rubber or other elastic and 
waterproof material, constructed with 
air chambers, and having combined with 
it hollow floats which extend along each 
arm and expand at the hand to furnish 
broad paddles or means of pi'opulsion in 
the water, which aid the person wearing 
it, in swimming, and by this means gain- 
ing any desired place of rest or refuge. 
Scientific Ame?'ican. 



HOW MOISTURE AFFECTS THE 
VALUE OF WOOD. 

When wood is newly cut it contains 
a large quantity of water, (sap,) varying 
in diiferent varieties from 20 to 50 per 
cent. Trees contain more water in those 
seasons when the flow of sap is active, 
than when the growth is suspended ; 
and soft wood contains more than hard. 
Exposed to air a year, wood becomes air 
dried, and parts with about half its wa- 
ter ; 15 per cent, more may be expelled 
by artificial heat ; but before it loses the 
half of its moisture it begins to decom- 
pose, or char. The presence of water in 
wood diminishes its value as fuel in two 
ways — it hinders and delays the com- 
bustive process, and wastes heat by 
evaporation. Suppose that 100 pounds 
of wood contain 30 of water, they have 



MECHANICAL. 



41 



then but 70 of true combustible mate- 
rial. When burned, 1 pound of the 
wood will be expended in raising the 
temperature of the water to the boiling 
point, and six more in converting it into 
vapor, making a loss of 7 pounds of real 
wood, or 1-10 of the combustive force. 
Besides this dead loss of 10 per cent, of 
fuel, the water present is an annoyance, 
by hindering free and rapid combustion. 



HOW TO MEND CHINA. 

Fkom an English almanac we, a long 
time since, cut a recipe for mending 
china, and the opportunitj' having occur- 
red for trying, we found it admirable, the 
fracture being scarcely visible after the 
article was repaired. It is thus made : 
Take a very thick solution of gum arabic 
in water, and stir it into plaster of Paris 
until the mixture becomes a viscous 
paste. Apply it with a brush to the 
fractured edges and stick them together. 
In three days the article can not again be 
broken in the same place. The white- 
ness of the cement renders it doubly 
valuable. — Exchange. 



CEMENT FOR JOINTING STONE. 

A CEMENT which gradually indurates 
to a stony consistence, may be made by 
mixing 20 parts of clean river sand, 2 of 
litharge, and one of quick-lime, into a 
thin putty with linseed oil. The quick- 
lime may be replaced with litharge. 
When the cement is applied to mend 
broken pieces of stone, as steps of stairs, 
it acquires after some time a stony hard- 
ness. A similar composition has been 
used to coat over brick walls under the 
name of mastic. 



AMERICAN MECHANICAL SKILL. 

TnE viceroy of Egypt gives a decided 
preference to the works of our American 
artizans, in which he shows excellent 
sense. A banjue is loading at Boston 
for Alexandria, with a complete ponton 
train manufactured by Boston mechan- 
ics, to the order of the viceroy. The 
train consists of twenty-six wagons, and 
will carry tlie materials for constructing 
a bridge three hundred feet in length. 
The cost of this is upwards of $30,000. 
There are also boxes of tools, of every 
description, for the use of a moving 
army. One box of joiner's tools, from 



the manufactory of F. G. Gouch, of 
Worcester, are much admired for their 
superior make and exquisite finish. Os- 
good Bradley, car manufacturer, has an 
order from the viceroy for a train of 
eight-wheeled passenger cars, the cost 
of which will exceed %\00,0m.— Kenne- 
bec Journal. 



MAKING WOOD FIRE-PROOF. 
Propessor Rochelder, of Prague, has 
just discovered a new antii)hlogist mate- 
rial, which promises to' become of im- 
portance. It is a liquid chemical com- 
position, the secret of which is not yet 
divulged, which renders wood and other 
articles indestructible by fire. Several 
successful experiments have been made, 
and others are promised on a larger 
scale. 



LAMPS FOR THE BURNING OP 
KERASINE OIL. 
These lamps are manufactured by 
Messrs. Dietz & Co., 182 William street, 
New-York. For producing a brilliant 
light at a small expense we think they 
would be hard to be outdone. No un- 
pleasant odor, as far as we can perceive, 
arises from the kerasine, as burnt in this 
way. Having tested these lamps, we 
can cheerfully recommend them to our 
friends. 



ANOTHER GREAT SHIP. 

A GENTLEMAN of Livcrpool, England, 
has proposed to build a ship which will 
dwarf even the Leviathan, to be called 
Palmerston^s Foresight. The proposal 
was first received as something worthy 
of attention, but it has been found from 
his model that it would be unfit for any 
practicable purpose, being almost flat 
bottomed, with vertical sides, and no 
visible keel ; in fact,' it is but a gigantic 
box that might swim, but would be of 
no value as a ship. We chronicle this 
fact to illustrate the mistakes tliat per- 
sons make when undertaking to invent 
or improve upon anything without first 
fully understanding what they are about. 



42 



SCIENTIFIC. 



riiJnti|ir. 



CHEMICAL. 

8 OXYGEN 1 HYDROGEN 9 WATER. 

Water with other substances forms hydrates, as hydrates of hme, of iron, etc. 
16 OXYGEN 6 CARBON 22 CARBONIC ACID. 

Carbonic acid forms carbonates, as carbonate of Hme, (chalk, marble, lime-stone,) 

carbonate of soda, (washing soda,) bi-carbonate of soda, (cooking soda,) etc. 
14 NITROGEN 3 HYDROGEN 17 AMMONIA. 

The three compounds above, water carbonic acid, and ammonia constitute a very- 
large part of the food of all growing plants. Nothing could grow if deprived 
of either of them. Decaying plants and animals are always giving them 
off; and living, growing plants are always receiving them. 

Carbonic Acid. 



Of oxygen as compounded with hy- 
drogen in the form of water, and of its 
uses in vegetation, we have spoken at 
length. By the second formula above 
it will be seen that 16 lbs. of oxygen 
combined with six of carbon form 
twenty-two lbs. of carbonic acid. The 
young reader should keep in mind, that 
oxygen in its pure state is a limpid gas, 
constituting the vitality of the air we 
breathe, and that carbon, in a state of 
purity and crystalized, constitutes the 
diamond, but is better known as char- 
coal. In the latter form it is not quite 
pure, having a little ash mixed with it. 

About one part in twenty-five hundred 
of the atmosphere is carbonic acid. This 
gas is once and a half as heavy as at- 
mospheric air. When thrown into the 
air, its first tendency is to settle down 
into low places, as near the floor of a 
room, or into an open well, and conse- 
quently lives are sometimes destroyed 
by it, by descending into dry wells or 
into cisterns or vats in which liquors 
have been fermented. But a secondary 
tendency is to an equal diffusion of itself 
through the whole extent of the atmos- 
phere. The air slowly takes it up and 
diffuses it through its whole mass. If 
you put a drop of alcohol into a barrel 
of water, it will mix equally with the 



whole. So with this gas in the air. If 
you put a few drops of strong vinegar 
on a piece of chalk, this gas will escape. 
First it falls to the floor, but soon will 
be taken up and equally diffused through 
the whole room. 

Its proportion in the air varies a little 
at different times and places; but is gen- 
erally, as we have said, about one part 
in twenty-five hundred. Growing veg- 
etables are always drawing carbonic acid 
from the air. Other causes are constant- 
ly throwing it into the air, so that the 
above proportions are very nearly pre- 
served. Now if the air contained much 
less, plants could not grow, for no plant 
can flourish without this gas ; and if the 
air contained much more, animals, in- 
cluding man, could not live, for it is 
poisonous when breathed in much larger 
proportions than is usual. In future 
numbers we shall show how the air is 
kept constantly and certainly supplied 
with this gas to meet the wants of vege- 
tation, and yet not over-supphed to the 
destruction of animal life. 

Few subjects are more gratifying to a 
laudable curiosity, or attended with 
more valuable practical results, than that 
of the exhaustion of this gas from the at- 
mosphere, its constant re-supply, and its 
influences on vegetable and animal life. 



SCIENTIFIC 



43 



FOR THE AMERICAN FARMERS' MllGAZIAU. 

THE WEATHER. 

Appearance of Birds, Flowers, etc., in Nichols, Tioga Co., N. Y., in November, 1857. 

By B. Howell. 

Place of Observation, 42 degrees North, on a Diluvial Formation, about AO feet above the 

Susquehanna River, and 800 feet above tide, according to the survey 

of the Netv-York and Erie Railroad. 



Oct. 


6A.M. 


1 


30 


2 


33 


8 


33 


4 


31 


5 


30 


6 


52 


T 


36 


8 


56 


9 


66 


10 


40 ! 


11 


24 


12 


26 


13 


41 


14 


30 


16 


14 


16 


19 


17 


34 


18 


36 


19 


39 


20 


16 


21 


18 


22 


29 


23 


24 


24 


22 


25 


8 


26 


17 


27 


12 


28 


14 


29 


13 


80 


86 



IP.M 

50 
53 
44 
47 
56 
62 
66 
72 
72 



43 
44 
60 
47 
29 
86 
36 
38 
40 
39 
22 
29 
35 
42 
25 
18 
25 
36 
42 
40 
48 



9 P.M. 




40 


N.&S. 


41 


s. w. 


40 


North 


86 


South 


64 


" 


55 


" 


54 


" 


66 


" 


68 




27 


West 


28 




45 


South 


36 


S. W. 


24 


North 


22 


" 


85 


South 


34 


North 


30 


South 


29 


" 


14 


S. W. 


25 


S. E. 


21 


s. w. 


28 


South 


18 


s. w. 


15 


N. W. 


14 


North 


21 


« 


22 


South 


81 
46 


u 



Cloudy. 



Light rain at 9 P. M. 



Rain commenced at 2 P. M. 

Liglit rain in the evening at 8 o'clock. 

Light rain in tlic morning. 

Very hard rain from 3 to 6 in morning. Small 
streams over the banks. Rain from 9^ P. M. to 
2 or 3 in the morning. 



Light rain in the afternoon. 
Snow squall. 

Snow squall in the morning. Rain the afternoon. 

White hail in the forenoon. 

Rain commenced at 10 o'clock and turned to snow. 



Snow squall in forenoon. [till 4 P. M. 

Hard rain commenced at 11 A. M. and continued 
Snow squall in the afternoon. 
Susquehanna river froze over 4 miles above Owego. 



Clear. 
Cloudy, 

Clear. 
Cloudy. 



The storm of the 9th was the most se- 
vere ever experienced for the length of 
time of its continuance. Small streams 
over the banks. The force of the vrater 
was so great that logs and stones were 
moved that had lain more than twenty 
years. This storm could not be far 
above here in a south-east course, for 
the large creek running in that direction 
was not half-banks. In the evening of 
the 9th was a rain nearly equal to the 
one in the morning. These two storms 
took place at the same time as the great 
storm that inundated the central and 
west part of the State, and, as far as I 
can learn, lasted from 35 to 45 hours. 



METEOROLOGICAL. 
chapman's pkecalcclations. 

{Entered according to Act of Congrena, in the 
year 1S.56, 6y L. L. CHAPMAN, in the Clerk's 
Office of the District Court, for the Eastern Dis- 
trict of Pennmjl/oania.) 

FIRST DEPARTMENT. 

explanatory. 

VISION, (instead of being a faculty 
posses.scd and e-xerted at will on distant 
objects,)is simply a sense of feeling ex- 
cited on the nerves of the eye by cur- 
rents of electricity radiated or reflected 
from the object seen. Hence, light is 
identical with electricity, wliich, hence, 
instead of being confined to our earth, is 
the common property of the solar system. 



44 



SCIENTIFIC 



The angles of incidence and reflection 
are Positive and Negative angles, induc- 
ing (with other causes) a successive se- 
ries of positive and negative conditions 
of the atmosphere and elements. 

THE TERM POSITIVE is here given 
to conditions abounding more with vital 
electricity, inspiring more health, vigor, 
cheerfulness, and better feelings for bu- 
siness, intercourse, etc., and consequent- 
ly greater success, enjoyment, etc. 

THE TERM NEGATIVE is given to 
those conditions which abound less with 
electricity, and consequently are more 
unfavorable to health, feelings, business, 
social intercourse, ets. 

IF Indicates Sundays. 

FIRST MONTH, (January,) 1858. 

Tendency. Time o'clock 

1st, Negative, from 5 morn to 12 noon. 
Positive, from 1 to 3 eve. 
Negative, from 4 to 10 eve. 
2d, Positive, from 1 to 8 morn. 
Negative, from 5 to 10 morn. 
Positive, from 11 morn to 12 eve. 
3d, IF Positive, from 1 morn to 4 eve. 

Negative, from 5 to 12 eve. 
4th, Mixed, from 1 to 6 morn. 

Negative, from 7 morn to 7 eve. 
5th, Positive, from 1 morn to 4 eve. 

Mixed, from 4 to 12 eve. 
6 th, Negative, from 4 morn to 2 eve. 

Mixed, from 3 to 12 eve. 
7th, Positive, from 1 morn to 11 eve. 
8th, Mixed, from- 1 to 11 morn. 

Positive, from 12 noon to 12 eve. 
9 th, Positive, from 1 to 9 morn. 
Mixed, from 10 morn to 2 eve. 
Positive, from 3 to 12 eve. 
10th, IF Positive, from 4 morn to 3 eve. 

Negative, from 4 to 11 eve. 
11th, Negative, from 1 to 8 morn. 

Positive, from 9 morn to 12 noon. 
Negative, from 1 to 12 eve. 
12th, Positive, from 7 morn to 12 eve. 
13th, Positive, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
14th, Mixed, from 6 morn to 12 eve. 
15th, Mixed, from 1 to 6 morn. 

Positive, from 7 morn to 10 eve. 
Negative, from 3 to 12 eve. 
16th, Negative, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
17th, IF Positive, from 1 to 10 morn. 

Mixed, from 10 morn to 12 eve. 
18th, Positive, from 3 to 8 morn. 

Mixed, from 9 morn to 12 eve. 
19th, Positive, from 1 to 8 morn. 
Mixed, from 8 to 10 morn. 
Positive, from 11 morn to 12 eve. 
20th, Positive, from 1 morn to 3 eve. 
Negative, from 3 to 12 eve. 



21st, Negative, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
22d, Negative, from 1 morn to 5 eve. 

Positive, from 6 to 7 eve. 

Negative, from 7 to 12 eve. 
23d, Positive, from 4 morn to 11 eve. 
24th, IF Positive, from 3 morn to 7 eve. 
25th, Positive, from 3 to 1 1 morn. 

Negative, from 10 noon to 9 eve. 
26th, Negative, from 2 morn to 12 eve. 
27th, Negative, from 1 morn to 1 eve. 

Positive, from 2 to 10 eve. 
28th, Negative, from 6 morn to 1 eve. 

^ Mixed, from 2 to 12 eve. 
29th, Negative, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
30th, Negative, from 1 to 7 morn. 

Positive, from 8 morn to 12 eve. 
31st, IF Positive, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 

SECOND DEPARTMENT. 

The changes are four minutes earlier 
for each degree of longitude (60 miles) 
west. Difference of latitude in the same 
meridian is immaterial. The dry condi- 
tions are fair, and the damp conditions 
cloudy or wet, at least three or four times 
out of five in the average. When fair, 
the damp conditions diffuse a cool, damp 
sensation through the atmosphere. 

Blanks indicate very weak, or mixed, 
or uncertain conditions. 

IF Indicate Sundays. 

FIRST MONTH, (January,) 1858. 
Time o'clock. Ray-angle. Tendency. 
1st, At 2 morn B" wind stirring. 

At 5 morn G, warm. 

At 12 noon R" warm, dry. 

At 3 eve V, cool. 

At 10 eve G' warm. 
2d, At 3 morn 0, damp. 

At 8 morn Y, warm, dry. 

At 10 eve V" cool, damp. 

At 11 eve Bv, cool, damp, windy. 

At 12 eve 0,, damp. 
3d, IF At 4 morn G,, warm. 

At 4 eve R,, warm. 
4th, At 5 morn G' warm. 

At 6 morn Y,, warm, dry. 

At 11 morn B' wind stirring. 

At 7 eve R' warm. 
5th, At 3 morn V„ cool. 

At 4 morn I,, cool, damp. 

At 12 noon R, warm. 

At 2 eve GV, cool, windy. 

At 4 eve B,, wind stirring. 

At 5 eve G" warm. 
6th, At 3 morn I' cool. 

At 8 morn V cool, damp. 

At 8 eve Y" warm, dry. 

At 11 eveB' 

At 12 eve YO, damp, windy. 



SCIENTIFIC. 



46 



7th, 
8th, 

9th, 
10th, 

11th, 

12th, 
13th, 

14th, 
15th, 



16th, 
17th, 



18th, 



19th, 



At 2 morn Y, cool, damp. 

At 7 morn VI,, cool, damp, windy. 

At 10 morn G, warm. 

At 11 eve 0- damp. 

At two morn B" wind stirring. 

At 7 morn • 

At 10 morn G,, warm. 

At 11 morn R" warm, dry. 

At 12 noon Y, warm. 

At 3 eve GR,, warm, dry. 

At 1 morn B, 

At 9 morn G, warm, dry. 

At 1 eve Y,, warm. 

At 2 eve BO" damp, windy. 

At 4 eve . 

At 2 morn I,, cool. 

At 3 morn V" cool, damp. 

At 1 2 noon . 

At 1 eve B„ 

At 3 eve .. warm. 

At 11 eve Y' warm. 

At 8 morn I' cool, damp. 

At 12 noon R. warm, dry. 

At 10 eve 0' 

At 6 morn R' warm, dry. 

At 8 morn I. cool. 

At 4 morn 0,, damp. 

At 12 noon V, cool, 

At 2 eve R,,* warm, dry. 

At 2 morn G- warm. 

At 5 morn 0, damp. 

At 6 morn V cool. 

At 3 eve BV„ cool, windy. 

At 12 eve Y- ^ 

At 12 eve I" I 

At 1 morn YB- o /-. i 

Ai 1 ^ T} See General 

At 1 morn ii- }• ti i 

A i o -irTM ! Remarks. 

At 2 morn YI v «iixo. 

At 2 morn BI" ] 

At 3 morn V„ J 

At 2 eve YV„ cool, windy. 

At 6 eve 0" — 

At 10 eve R" warm. 

At 11 eve .. 

IT At 9 morn R, warm. 

At 10 morn GO, wind stirring. 

At 1 1 morn V" cool, damp. 

At 8 eve I, cool. 

At 2 morn G' warm. 

At 3 morn .. windy. 

At 5 morn O,, 

At 8 morn R„ warm, dry. 

At 1 eve r cool, damp. 

At 8 eve V, cool. 

At 10 eve Y' warm.' 

At 3 mom GB- windy. 

At 8 morn G,, warm, dry. 

At 9 morn . 

At 10 morn 0' 

At 5 eve I„ cool, damp. 



20th, At 2 morn, end of the zodiacal pe- 
riod, or natural month. 

At 4 morn Y„ warm. 

At 7 morn G, warm, dry. 

At 8 morn .. warm. 

At 3 eve BO' windy. 
21st, At 2 morn RO" windy. 

At 10 morn B" wind stirring. 

At 7 eve G" warm, dry. 

At 10 eve I" cool. 
22d, At 12 noon Y" warm, dry. 

At 5 eve . 

At 7 eve R- warm, dry. 

At 9 eve 0" damp. 
23d, At 2 morn GI" cool, windy. 

At 12 noon B,, wind stirring. 

At 11 eve GV,. cool, damp, windy. 
24th, IT At 2 eve B' wind stirring. 

At 6 eve G, warm. 

At 7 eve Y,, warm, dry. 
25th, At 2 morn I' cool. 

At 11 morn O, 

At 9 eve Y' warm, diy. 

At 12 eve . warm. 
26th, At 1 eve Y, warm, dry. 

At 12 eve R' warm, dry. 
27th, At 4 morn YR" warm. 

At 1 eve B" wind stirring. 

At 7 eve R, warm. 
28th, At 3 morn I- cool, damp. 

At 5 morn V,, cool. 

At 1 eve G" warm, dry. 

At 12 eve V, cool. 
29th, At 4 morn Y" warm, dr3^ 

At 7 morn 0" 

30th, At 7 morn V" cool. 

At 2 eve 0, J 

31st, IT At 5 morn R,, warm, dry. 

At 12 noon 0,, damp. 

At 11 eve B„ wind stirring. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

Cool Periods, longer and more promi- 
nent, are more liable near the 7th, 15th. 

Greater tendency to windy, cloudy or 
stormy periods, or gusts, near the 7tli, 
9th, 14th, to ICth, 23d, 24th. 

Periods more prominently negative 
near the 9th, 14th, to IGth, 21st, 23d, 
27th. 

Periods of greater electrical deficiency 
25th to 31st. 

The number of combined and single 
currents intercepted on the 15th, is un- 
usual. I judge that earthquakes, auro- 
ras, popular excitements, etc., will be 
more liable near the 14th or 15th. 

Natural tendency of the zodiacal pe- 
riod from the 1st to 2Uth, dry. — From 
the 21st to 31st, damp. 



46 



CHILDREN'S CORNER 



(S hi c a t i 11 a 



None have a higher stake in the edu- 
cational interests of the country than 
the farmers and mechanics. They are 
not laborers in that offensive sense in 
which the term is known in other 
countries, and yet they are the real work- 
ing men of ours. Of their position they 
are not ashamed. They have no reason 
to be. Most of them very wisely desire 
that their sons may follow their own or 
an equally useful profession. But they 
would be sorry that they should do this 
from necessity and not from choice. Far 
be the day when professions and employ- 
ments shall become hereditary with us, 
as with many of the older nations, and 
when the sou, unless possessed of extra- 
ordinary ability, shall have no choice but 
to follow the occupation of his father. 

But what instrumentality shaU prevent 
power and wealth, and place and station, 
and employment, and poverty even, and 
ignorance and degradation from becom- 
ing hereditary .? We answer our public 
schools. Men in eminent positions will 
rarely fail to procure for their children 
high educational privileges. Their sons, 
if not destitute, as too often happens, of 
common sense and common prudence, 
will start in life with real, substantial 
advantages over the children of the poor 
and of the working classes generally, un- 
less our public schools are made compe- 
tent to give about as good an education 
as wealth can procure. When the son of 
a wood sawyer in one of our commercial 
cities carried off a hardly contested prize 
from the son of a merchant prince, it was 
a glorious promise that, however unequal 
one generation may become, the next 
shall start in life vmder circumstances of 
hope for all if such schools are main- 
tained. 

We would not be understood to say 
that the children of farmers and mechan- 
ics, and much less that those of the poor, 



should be expensively educated ; but we 
do say that through the home influences 
and those of the public school, they must 
be well educated, their minds developed, 
a taste for reading formed, and ability to 
thiriTc given, or each generation will com- 
mence life more and more unequally. 
The son will follow the avocation of his 
father whether fitted for it and relishing 
it or not, and our republican institutions 
will yield to others that provide special- 
ly for the few, and care little for the 
many, except to make a convenience of 
them. 

On the great producing classes of this 
country, and especially on the farmers, 
rests the question, whether education, 
through our public schools, free to all 
shall be general and of that high and 
thorough character which alone can 
make our descendants, as our fathers 
were, capable of self-government, or 
whether, while our fathers wrested the 
sceptre from tyrants, our sons shall suf- 
fer a yoke to be put upon their necks. 



CHILDREN'S CORNER. 




Flowers are rather out of season just 
now, but we always think of them when 
we think of children, and here they are 



CHILDREN'S CORNER 



47 



— cnil)lt'ms of Spring. "Well, those for 
whom wc write are in the spring-time 
of life, and so flowers are in good time, 
though it be the dead of winter. 

The weather for some time past has 



been spring like, and some of our boy 
readers, not so far off but that wc seem 
to see them, have been playing at mar- 
bles. 




One of them is a strong, vigorous boy, 
about ten years of age. His name is 
William. We might here tell what a 
noble hearted boy he is, how obedient to 
his father, how kind to his mother, how 
loving and gentle to his younger brothers 
and sisters, and how everybody likes 
him — but let his actions speak for him. 
The world judges boys, as it does men, 
very much by their actions ; and it is no 
uncommon thing to judge of looks very 
much by the same rule, for although 
William has not what would be called a 
handsome face, having a nose of rather 
huge dimensions, thick lips, a little too 
much rolled, and not a very smooth fore- 
head, yet everybody says, what a fine 
looking fellow he is. This is because 
his conduct wins for him a favorable 
judgment. But let all this go. 

William is playing marbles with some 
other boys. One of them is named 
Samuel. He is a beautiful boy, as any 
one would say, on seeing him for the first 
time; tall, straight, with symmetrical 
features, and a fiiultless complexion. 
Yet those who know him best, have hard- 
ly obsei-ved this. He is selfish ; often he 
is abusive. If another boy says or does 
what can be interpreted into an insult to 
him, it is too much to be borne. If he 
insults another boy and gets a flogging 
for it, he thinks himself very badly used ; 



and when people see him, they do not 
think so much of his fine looks as of his 
selfish acts, and so they hardly find out 
that he is really handsome. 

While the play is going on, and Wil- 
liam is stooping down to throw his mar- 
ble, Samuel by a sudden movement push- 
es him over. Had William done the 
same to him, it would not have been 
easily forgiven. But as William knew 
his temper pretty well, he concluded, 
after brushing off the du-st to let it pass. 

Samuel attempts the same thing again, 
but William saves himself by a sudden 
spring, and Samuel pitches into the dirt. 
He jumps up, and without stopping to 
brush himself, thinks only of revenge. 
With an "I'll pay you for that," he 
rushes at William, and if he had been 
strong enough no one knows what would 
have followed. But William keeps cool, 
and only defends himself, till Samuel has 
worried himself out in fruitless attempts 
at him, and then goes off home to tell his 
mother. Whether his mother has the 
good sense to ferret out of him the whole 
truth and then to administer a reproof 
that should make him ashamed of him- 
self, is more than we know. But the 
boys all said that Samuel was a mean 
fellow; that William had used him bet 
ter than any other boy would have done ; 
and everybody, who has seen as much 



48 



DOMESTIC. 



of boys as we have, knows that their 
opinions in such matters are very apt to 
be about right. 



LESSON IN SPELLING. 

Write, we know, is written right 
When we see it written icrite ; 
But when we see it written right, 
We know it is not written icright; 
For write, to have it written right, * 
Must not be written 7'ig7it or wright. 
Nor yet should it be written rite. 
But write ; for so 'tis written right. 
Old lia/per. 



ENIGMA. 

I AM composed of 23 letters. 

My 7, 12, 3, 14, 21, 6 and 19 is the 
name of a country. 

My 5, 8 and 22 is a hotel. 

My 3, 8, 18, 5, 22 and 13 is a very 
useful machine. 

My 9, 17, 4, 16, 23 and 11 is a culti- 
vator. 

My 11, 10, 20 and 3 is to erase. 

My 1 and 15 is ancient coin. 

My 2 and 13 is myself. 

My whole is not far off. 



0mi^j)tir. 



THE SMITHSONIAN AQUARIUM 
AT WASHINGTON. 

A FINE marine aquavivarium, or aqua- 
rium, has been prepared at the Smith- 
sonian Institution, where the public can 
now inspect its curious contents. It is 
said that an eminent French zoologist, 
in order to prosecute his studies on ma- 
rine animals of the Mediterranean, pro- 
vided himself with a water dress, glass 
helmet and breathing tubes, that he 
might walk about under water and mark 
the habits of the various creatures pur- 
suing their avocations. Any one who 
will visit the Smithsonian aquarium may 
enjoy the same opportunities, and be- 
come acquainted with the strange ani- 
mals and plants of the sea without div- 
ing to gaze on them. 

The aquarium is simply a glass tank, 
erected on a table, and filled with sea- 
water, in which flourish marine plants 
and animals without any aid, or even 
changing the water. 

The bottom of the Smithsonian aqua- 
rium is an imitation of the bottom of the 
sea, composed of silver sand, coai'se sand 
and pebbles. In the center is a mass of 
rock, giving shelter and concealment to 
such animals as like concealment, while 
jotted about are growing specimens of 
fuci and algae. In this miniature ocean 
cave are about three hundred specimens 
of animal vitality, belonging to some 
thirty-eight species of fishes, molluscae, 
crustacse and polypes. Some of these 
burrow in the sand, or modestly hide 
among the pebbles ; others, like the her- 
mit crabs, having taken possession of 



vacant suits of submarine armor, flourish 
about belligerently, ready for a fight. 
Some are perfectly transparent, like ani- 
mated particles of jelly ; others are en- 
shrined in their shells. The curious 
"horse-fish" paddles about with his 
filmy dorsal fin ; and a lethargic clam pro- 
trudes its siphons, enveloped in a shaggy 
fringe ; a solitary flounder was evidently 
annoyed when rooted out, and imme- 
diately burrowed himself again in the 
sand ; while two pugnacious crabs fought 
gallantly over an amphitrite auricoma, 
which had been obligingly sacrificed that 
we might see its golded combs. — Wash- 
ington Union. 



THE DIGNITY OF PRAYER. 

BY ARCHBISHOP LEIGHTON. 

Consider the dignity of this, to be ad- 
mitted into so near converse with the 
highest majesty. Were there nothing 
to follow, no answer at all, prayer pays 
itself in the excellence of its nature, and 
sweetness that the soul finds in it Poor 
fallen man, to be admitted into heaven 
while he is on earth, and there to come 
and speak his mind freely to the Lord of 
heaven and earth as his friend, as his 
father ! — to empty all his complaints in- 
to his bosom, to refresh his soul in his 
God, wearied with the follies and mise- 
ries of the world. Where there is any- 
thing of His love, this is a privilege of 
the highest sweetness, for they that love, 
find much delight to discourse together, 
and count all hours short, and think the 
day runs too fast, that is so spent. And 
they that are much in this exercise, the 



DOMESTIC. 



49 



Lord does impart his secrets much to 
them. 



GRAPE WINE. 

Express the juice, as with the cran- 
berries, washing the pulp in the same 
manner ; the liquor will be about one- 
tenth part water. Add sugar, three 
pounds to a gallon of juice, and ferment 
as before. 

We have before us a sample of wine 
made from each of these recipes. The 
cranberry and barberry wines make a 
very pleasant drink when mixed with 
about four or five times the amount of 
water. The other two kinds are excel- 
lent in their present state. — AT. E. Far. 



.SALERATUS. 

Use as little of this pernicious article 
as pos.sible about your household; every 
particle taken into the stomach is inju- 
rious to the natural functions. This has 
been proved beyond doubt by careful 
tests among chemists. 



TO MAKE CRACKERS. 

Two cups of flour, one cup of butter, 
(or half lard and half butter,) two cups 
of water, two teaspoonfuls of cream of 
tartar, one teaspoonful of soda, and a lit- 
tle salt. They require only a common 
kneading and are very nice. 



THE BEST. 

Never grow a bad variety of anything, 
if you can help it. It takes the same 
room, and wants the same attention as a 
good one. Never buy cheap seed. Never 
waste animal or vejjefable refuse. The 
very soap-suds from the laundry are rich 
manure. 



CORN nUSKS FOR UNDER BEDS. 

Corn husks for this purpose are too 
generally undervalued. Those who have 
used such beds for a number of years 
speak of them as light, cleanly, durable 
and generally superior to under beds 
made of any other material. The esti- 
mate of the value of one such bed made 
by a lady in a village, who had been 
brought up in a farm house in which 
several such were in use, and who offer- 
ed a farmer acquaintJince five dollars for 
one well filled, was probably not an ex- 



travagant one. And if of this value, 
might not the labor of children, as also 
of men and women not more advantage- 
ously employed, be profitably used in 
taking care of the husks for this pur- 
pose ? Those who may be induced to 
make a trial of this mode of converting 
husks into most desirable articles of 
household comfort and convenience, 
should be particular about excluding all 
the outer and stiffer husks, allowing 
none to be put into the bed save the 
softer and smaller ones. Some strip 
them with a fork, while others, with 
whom we should agree, use them whole. 



A MOTHER'S LOVE. 

In some spring freshet, a river widely 
washed its shores and rent away a bough, 
whereon a bird had built a cottage for 
her summer hopes. Down the white 
and whirling stream, drifted the green 
branch, with its wicker cup of unfledged 
song; and fluttering beside it, as it 
went, the mother bird. Unheeding the 
roaring river, on she kept, her cries of 
agony and fear piercing the pauses of 
the storm. How like the love of the old- 
fashioned mother who followed the child 
she had plucked from her heart, all over 
the world. Swept away by passion, thut 
might be, it mattered not; bearing away 
with him, the fragments of the shattered 
roof tree, though he did, yet that mother 
was with him, a Ruth through all his 
life, and a Rachel at his death. — Lamar- 
tine. 



PUMPKIN BATTER. 

Wash the pumpkins clean, take out 
the seeds, and scrape the inside out with 
a strong iron spoon. Boil till sofr, and 
rub it through a coarse sieve. Whm 
strained, put it into a kettle and bod 
slowly all day, stirring it often. Put in 
a large handful of salt. When nearly 
done, add a pint of molasses, or a pound 
of sugar, to each gallon of pumpkin. Be- 
fore it is ([uite done, add allspice, cinna- 
mon, ginger and nutmeg, one or all, as 
3-ou may fancy. Put it into jars when 
done — large ones are best. Tie it uj) 
tight, and it will keep luitil April or 
May, in a cold place, if you scald it when 
spring comes on. It is a good sauce for 
table use, and is always ready for pies, 
with the usual addition of salt and milk. 
It is nuich less trouble, and fur better 
than dried pumpkin. — Gran. State Far. 



50 



EDITOR'S TABL E 



(Bdtor'^ iBi\b\t 



Progress — the steady and earnest ef- 
fort onward — may well be selected as the 
distinguishing feature in American char- 
acter. 

To assist that effoi't, to ease the diffi- 
culties that beset the traveler, and to 
point out the straight road where cross- 
ways meet, should be the watchful duty 
of the journalist, whatever be the objects 
to which his lucubrations are devoted. 

We are not without hope, judging 
from the testimony of our numerous 
friends, that our past efforts in the pages 
of this journal have given a firm helping 
hand to many a farmer, and answered 
the expectations of other readers who 
turned over our pages for information. 
Yet if we have satisfied our readers, we 
have not always been successful in pleas- 
ing ourselves. For as month by month 
has rolled on, and we have become ac- 
quainted with the wants of our friends 
from their numerous letters of inquiry, 
we have ever and anon felt regret that 
we could not anticipate all their require- 
ments. Nevertheless we have thence at 
least gained experience ; and therein we 
trust we have the ground- work for more 
amply supplying for the future the wants 
of every class of our readers. 

With this object in view we have, up- 
on entering on our editorial duties for 
the new year, determined in some mea- 
sure to remodel the arrangement of our 
joiirnal, in such a way that whilst on 
the one hand no important feature of it 
has been omitted, on the other the vari- 
ous topics discussed have been so classed 
together and separated the one from the 
other, that every class of our readers 
will be enabled at all times to turn read- 
ily to the subjects that for the moment 
become the special matter of interest to 
them. 

The pages of this number will show 
the method that has been adopted, and 



the same order will be observed in the 
subsequent numbers. 

Our improvements are not confined, 
however, to merely typographical ar- 
rangement. We have made engage- 
ments which will enable us to present 
our readers with a series of articles of a 
popular, but at the same time, scientific 
character, connected with agriculture 
and horticulture which, whilst they will 
be written with special reference to prac- 
tical utility, will also afford our readers 
the opportunity to become acquainted 
with the scientific principles upon which 
the practice depends. The importance 
of such knowledge can only be fully ap- 
preciated by those who possess it ; but 
when presented in the familiar aspect in 
which we hope to place it before our 
readers, we feel much confidence that it 
will prove as acceptable to them as it 
will afford pleasure to us to impart it. 
The man who does a thing right without 
knowing tohi/, may be a lucky man ; but 
the man who does right and knows loTiy, 
is a wise man, and moreover can then 
repeat his past practice. 

Many a luclcy farmer would be more 
lucky still if he were a wise one. Though 
far from wise in all things ourselves, we 
should be unfit to fill our editorial chair 
if we could not teach something at least 
to some amongst our readers. 



We are able to promise our readers 
an article which we believe will be of 
very great value, in our February num- 
ber, from Capt. Ralston, Veterinary Sur- 
geon in the British Army, on the struc- 
ture of the horse's foot, and its require- 
ments, with regard to shoeing. 

The subject of veterinary surgery is 
one of great importance, and one which 
has till of late been sadly neglected in 
this country. We are glad to learn that 
Capt. R. has recently lectured on the 



MISCELLANEOUS 



51 



subject in this city, that his lectures are 
highly appreciated by good judges of 
such matters, and that he proposes to lec- 
ture in other places, if desired. His lec- 
tures arc accompanied with admirable il- 
lustrations of the organism of the horse, 
and are eminently scientific and instruc- 
tive, as we are informed by persons on 
whom we rely. 



J. W. Field, an eminently successful 
cultivator of the pear in Brooklyn, we 
learn, is about to come out with a book 
on the cultivation of this fruit, which 
we have no doubt will be a very valuable 
work. It is in process of publication by 
A. 0. Moore, 140 Fulton street, N. Y. 



TO OUR OLD SUBSCRIBERS. 

We have more to say in another place. 
We will only say here, that as we have 
lowered our price from $3 to $2 for sin- 
gle copies, and to $1 50 for clubs, and 
as we now offer to send it to such as can 
not conveniently club with others in or- 
der to economize in these hard times, 
seven months for ^1, fifteen months for 
$2, and two )^ears for $3, we hope they 
will not complain of our urgency to adopt 
the cash-in-advance principle. Low 
prices and pre-pay, is the order of the 
day. Well, we have lowered our price, 
and now you will come in to the cash 
sj'^stem. Let us hear fi-om you this 
month. 



I— I ■ I 1^ 



isuIlaiuauK. 



THE PAST YEAR AND THE PRESENT. 

BY SENEX. 

Some fifty years ago there lived in a 
famed but distant city an old man, by who 
dint of tact, with the aid of keen percep- 
tive faculties, had acquired much celebrity 
with a large class of his neighbors as some- 
thing between a prophet and a fortune- 
teller. He did not, however, assume the 
character either of a religious fanatic or 
of a crafty disciple of Dr. Faustus. But 
he was well read iu the Scriptures, he had 
a good share of common sense, and a volu- 
ble tongue, and by degrees he acquired a 
fame for wise sayings and for capability to 
advise, which he owed more to his natural 
talents and a loquacious disposition than 
to any less worthy means. Being advanced 
in years, and his lot humble, he turned the 
good opinion formed of him to the account 
of his livelihood, by discussing questions 
put to him by liis visitors in a frank and 
nanly spirit, and without ever demanding 
;'econipense, he was ready to receive any 
gratuity that was offered by them on their 
departure. Moreover, his advice was 
always if not valuable at least good in 
kind ; and few if any quitted his humble 
dwelling without leaving their good wishes 
in a substantial shape ; or without having 



also formed a favorable opinion of their 
mentor. 

So considerable became this good man's 
fame, at length, that many from curiosity 
alone were induced to visit him, and hear 
his " wise sayings." 

His counsel was usually couched in short 
and terse sentences ; frequently in proverbs, 
and often too in the language of the Bible, 
to which he would sometimes refer his in- 
quirers for passages that would be found 
ap2)licable, he stated, to their case. As 
these passages were usually selected from 
the Proverbs and other portions of some- 
what similar description, which contained 
some rule of morals, or which advocated 
Christian duty, he seldom failed to be 
right. 

Amongst others who were led by curios- 
ity to this wise man was a young farmer, 
then not long entered upon the threshold 
of life, whom after some of the Scripture 
references above adverted to, he dismissed 
with the parting advice, " To keep a smil- 
ing countenance and a good exertion." 

The young farmer lived to become an 
old man, and is now gathered to his 
fathers! But for many years the writer 
of this article heard him from time to time 
revert with pleasure to his visit, and say 



52 



5ITSCELLANE0US. 



that this simple aphorism had frequently 
cheered him in the hour of difficulty, and 
that the thoughts of the old man's con- 
tented countenance and encouraging voice 
when he uttered it, had gone far to make 
him place confidence in his counsel. 

The past year has been one to many of 
much pain and distress, to most of great 
anxiety and labor. The signs of the times 
have called for unusual exertion both of 
body and mind. And now that the waves 
of adversity which have thus ruthlessly 
swept over our countiy, have, we may 
reasonably hope, spent their violence and 
given way to less turbulent billows that 
require yet time to settle down into the 
calm of every day life, let us look around, 
survey the ravages of the past hurricane, 
and see whence we can best place our foot 
as the starting point for our onward course 
of duty. 

Firmness of principle, and courageous 
determination must be the banner under 
which we renew the fight ; can we do bet- 
ter then than take our old man's counsel ? 
" To keep a smiling countenance and a 
good exertion." 

Let those amongst us who have lost, in 
the late struggle, much, may be all, of their 
hoarded treasures, reflect on the blessings 
still spared to them. 

Who that has a healthy, cheerful wife 
to share his sorrows as she does his pleas- 
ures would wish to regain his worldly loss 
at the price of her languishing frame 
stretched out upon the bed of sickness ? 

Who that rejoices in a son springing 
forth into manhood, a blessing to his 
father, the joy of his mother, would regain 
his worldly loss at the cost of that boy's 
debasement in vice and debauchery ? 

Who that has a sister or a daughter, 
happy in the innocence of blooming youth, 
the pride of his eyes, the sharer of his 
hours of recreation, and his Sabbaths, 
would regain his worldly loss at the price 
of her fall from honor to despair ? 

Too prone are we all to brood over the 
clouds of our atmosphere, and too little do 
we keep the eye of hope fixed on the first 
sun-beam that pierces through to disperse 
them. Some slight glances at a blacker 
picture still, go far to deck in brighter 
hues the one that is now our own. 



With " a smiling countenance and a good 
exei:tion," let every one of us, be his lot 
cast as it may chance to be with either the 
Plough, the Loom or the Anvil, — put forth 
manfully his powers, and thankful for the 
blessing yet spared, be it our effort in our 
worldly duties to follow the example set 
us in higher things, " forgetting those 
things that are behind, and reaching forth 
unto those things which are before, let us 
press towards the mark for the prize ;" and 
if we thus demean ourselves we shall not 
fail, in earthly any more than in spiritual 
things, to obtain our reward. 

Let one and all then commence tliis good 
new year resolving throughout its course 
"To keep a smiling countenance and a 
good exertion." 



WHO LIVETH? 

'Tis he who heals the wounded breast 

And wipes away the mourner's tear — 
Whose words of tenderness flow forth 

As fountains in a desert drear — 
Upon whose lip Eternal Truth 

Sits 'mid a world of sin and shame — 
Presiding in perjietual youth. 

She breathes a dying Savior's name. 

'Tis he who stamps upon his brain 

The lore of glorious aged flee — 
Holding high converse with the Past, 

And dwelling with the mighty dead ! 
Stealing true inspiration's fire 

From Suns that never can go down ; 
Chained to his task with iron zeal. 

And wearing Labor's thorny crown. 

'Tis he who strikes Apollo's lyre. 

Whose burning songs can never die — 
That echo through the vast of years, 

As angel's anthems through the sky, 
Who girt by woe and want and pain, 

In a dark wilderness of years — 
Wins an imperishable name — 

A broken hearted Man of Tears. 



CONUNDRUM. 

Why are the females of the present day 
like the lilly in the scriptures ? 

Because " they toil not, neither do they 
spin ; yet Solomon in all his glory was not 
arrayed like one of these." 

Very true of a part of the sex, and it is 
a shame that it should be so, but not true 
of the sex in the aggregate, nor true com- 
paratively with the other half of the race. 
From the felling of the first tree and the 
building of the first cabin on this continent 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



53 



to the present time, when we liave become a 
Efreat country, woman lias nobly born her 
part, has endured and toiled, has wrought 
lier full share of our present greatness. 
This being so, the more's the pity that 
there should be such miserable exceptions, 
as give point and force to the above con- 
undrum. 



EMPLOYEES. 
As the following relates to a matter of 
general interest we gladly give it a place 
ill accordance with the request of Mr. 
Mrace, Secretary of the Children's Aid So- 
ciety : 

TO BOUSS KEEPEBS AND FARMERS AT 
TUB WEST. 

It has long been the greatest complaint 
with housekeepers at the West, that suffi- 
cient female help could not be obt«iined. 
There are now in our city thousands of 
industrious, sober girls, of good chai-acter, 
who are thrown entirely out of employ- 
nicnt. Many of these are desii'ous of going 
to the West, and becoming house ser- 
vants or domestics. 

The difficulty has hitherto been, to find 
some responsible medium to connect those 
without work and those wanting work 
done. The .Children's Aid Society has de- 
termined — though the effort is somewhat 
out of its usual field — to attempt during 
this season to connect this supply and de- 
mand. To do this, and to aid these thou- 
sands of poor girls, the West must also 
lend a hand. They must not expect well- 
trained servants in these girls, as they are 
not accustomed to house labor ; still they 
are willing and able to learn, and only 
need patience and kindness. Every allow- 
ance should be made for mistakes and 
dflays in the beginning of such an enter- 
prise. Those applying must send the fares, 
as far as they are able ; in all eases the So- 
ciety will return the money if no girl is 
found to answer in general the description 
forwarded. Let not that, which is said to 
have broken down all j)revious enterprises 
of this kind, ruin this — the utter neglect 
of the West itself to give a helping hand. 
It is an effort to benefit both sides ; the un- 
employed here, and the families there. 

All letters must be addressed to Branch 
Office, Children's Aid Society, Clinton 
Hall, Astor Place, New -York, 

The applications enclosing fares will al- 
ways be attended to first. There will be 
an understanding, and, if possible, a writ- 
ten agreement with each girl, that her fare 
is to be deducted from her wages. 

Parties applying will state exactly their 
wants, the wages offered, their town. 



county and State, and the cheapest and 
l)est way of reaching the place. References 
from the clergyman, magistrate, or other 
responsible persons of the town will in all 
cases be demanded. It will be the en- 
deavor of the Society to send out none but 
girls with good references, and who are 
represented to be of good character. 

C. L. Brace, Sec, 



LECTURES. 

The long winter evenings are fast ap- 
proaching, and still the question of a 
course of lectures, whether we shall have 
them or not, is unsettled. We are in- 
formed by the committee, tliat about one 
hundred dollars more is necessary' than is 
now subscribed, in order to warrant them 
in going forward and making the neces- 
sary arrangements for a complete course of 
lectures. We know the times are hard ; 
but because they are so, shall we deprive 
ourselves of either food for the body or 
food for the mind? There is scarcely a 
person of any grade of intellectual capaci- 
ty, but would be instructed and amused 
double the value of the cost of a ticket. 
Every man who has a family should pur- 
chase tickets for them, and as we stated 
last j'ear, no young single man can better 
show his liberalit}' and gallantry than by 
purchasing tickets for two, and inviting a 
lady friend to share the mental feast. 

We copy the above from the Brockport 
Republic, not because we suppose that vil- 
lage behind all others in the matter of in- 
struction by lectures, but because we fear 
that many villages are behind that ; and 
we say to parents, provide this instructive 
amusement, or amusing instruction, which- 
ever you please to call it, for your chil- 
dren. Get some of the favorite lecturers. 
It is a great treat to hear an Everett, a 
Phillips, or a Symmes. But get more lec- 
turers, who are sen.sible and sufficiently 
amusing, and will lecture these hard times 
at cheaper rates. Why should not all 
courses of miscellaneous lectures embrace 
at least two on agriculture and one or two 
on the mechanic arts ? Surely these sub- 
jects are not without interest. — Ed. 

CLEANING SADDLES, ETC. 
The follo\\ing is a good recipe which 
will give saddles and bridles a good polish, 
and be entirely free from all stickiness: — 
The whites of three eggs evaporated till 
the substance left resembles tlic common 
gum, dissolved in a pint of gin, and jiut 
into a common wine bottle, and filled up 
with water. 



54 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



LEAVES AS MANURE. 

No manure is so well worth saving in 
October and November as the now falling 
leaves of the season. According to Payne 
they contain nearly three times as much 
nitrogen as ordinary barn-yard manure; 
and every gardener who has strewn and 
covered them in his trenches late in the 
fall or in December, must have noticed the 
next season how black and moist the soil 
is that adheres to the thrifty young beets 
he pulls. No vegetable substance yields 
its woody fibre and becomes soluble quick- 
er than leaves, and from this very cause 
they are soon dried up, scattered to the 
winds and wasted, if not now gathered and 
trenched in, or composted before the ad- 
vent of severe winter. — Ex. 

The value of leaves is rather overstated 
in the above. Nevertheless they possess 
a great value. Those about the premises 
should be thrown into the pig-pen or the 
barn-yard, or what is better, preserved for 
litter in the stalls. In an open forest, with 
no under-brush, they may be drawn into 
large heaps, with great facility, if taken 
when wet after a rain, by a yoke of cattle 
and a scraper made from a plank 10 or 12 
feet long and one or two wide, and cleats 
nailed across for handles. An ingenious 
man will make such an implement while 
the boy is yoking the oxen. An immense 
quantity can be gathered in a day ; and 
if a little lime be mixed with them, they 
will be ready to compost in the spring; 
but it should be remembered that the forest 
trees will suffer by taking off their natural 
aliment. — Ed. 



GOOD ADVICE TO FARMERS. 

The following beautiful passage is from 
George Bierce's late address at Twinsburg. 
His closing is peculiarly beautiful : 

Let the farmer's motto be, then, " good 
farms, good stock, good seed and good cul- 
tivation." Make farming a science in 
which your heads as well as your hands 
are employed ; let there be system and 
reason in all your operations; study to 
make your farms beautiful and your lands 
lovely ; entice, by kindness, the birds to 
visit and cheer your dwellings with their 
music ; I would not associate with the man 
or boy that would wantonly kill the birds 
that cheerfully sing around our dwellings 
and our farms ; he is fitted for treason and 
murder. Who does not, with the fresh- 
ness of early morning, call up the memoi'y 
of the garden of his infancy and child- 



hood? the robin's nest in the old cherry 
tree, and the nest of young chirping birds 
in the currant bushes ? the flowers planted 
by his mother, and nurtured by his sis- 
ters ? In all our wanderings the memory 
of childhood's birds and flowers are asso- 
ciated with our mother and sister and our 
early home. As you would have your 
children intelligent and happy, and their 
memory in after life, of early home, plea- 
sant or repulsive, so make your farms and 
your children's home. 



BE GENTLEMEN A.T HOME. 

There are few families, we imagine, any- 
where, in which love is not abused as 
furnishing the license for impolitenest^. 
A husband, father, or brother will speak 
harsh words to those he loves best, and 
those who love him best, simply because 
the security of love and family pride 
keeps him from getting his head broken. 
It is a shame that a man will speak more 
impolitely, at times, to his wife or sister, 
than he would to any other female except 
a low and vicious one. It is thus that the 
honest affections of a man's nature prove 
to be a weaker protection to a woman in 
the family circle than the restraints of so- 
ciety, and that a woman usually is indebted 
for the kindest politeness of life to those 
not belonging to her own household. 
Things ought not so to be. Tie man who, 
because it will not be resented, inflicts his 
spleen and bad temper upon those of his 
hearth-stone, is a small coward and a very 
mean man. Kind words are circulating 
mediums between true gentlemen and la- 
dies at home, and no polish exhibited in 
society can atone for the harsh language 
and disrespectful treatment too often in- 
dulged in between those bound together 
by God's own ties of blood, and the still 
more sacred bonds of conjugal love. 



RICE MILK. 

Wash a pint of rice in two waters. Add 
half a pound of good raisins carefully 
picked and cleansed, and boil well; pour 
off the water, and mix one quart of rich 
milk with the rice by stirring. Put again 
on the fire, and allow it to boil again for 
five minutes, and mix with it four table 
spoonfuls of brown sugar, and two eggs 
beaten light stirring well, and after tlie 
ingredients are thoroughly mixed, boil for 
five minutes longer, and the dish is ready 
to serve. 



Sunflower seeds are said to be the 
best known remedy for founder in horses. 
As soon as ascertained he is foundered, mix 
one pint of the seed whole with the feed, 
and an entire cure may be expected. 



MONTHLY REVIEW 



66 



GREAT ENTERPRISE. 
A GIGANTIC enterprise is now going on in 
Holland, being nothing less than blocking 
up two arms of the sea, and replacing them 
by a navigable canal for merchant vessels 
of the largest burthen. By this operation 
an extent of land of 14,000 hetares (35,000 
acres,) of the finest quality will be gained 
from the Scheldt. This canal, which will 
be completed in the course of two years, 
crosses the island of Sud-Bevoland, be- 
tween the villages of llanswert, on the 
western branch of the Scheldt, and Wem- 
erdins on the eastern. 



SOUP, BEEF TEA, MUTTON 
BROTH, ETC. 
In the preparation of these, our object is 
the reverse of that which has been pre- 
viously considered. "VVe desire to take the 
nutritive and savory principles out of the 
meat, to a liquid extract of meat, in the 
form of soup, broth or tea ; the flesh is 
finely chopped and placed in cold water, 
which is then slowlj' heated and kept boil- 
ing for a few minutes, when it is strained 
and pressed. In this manner we obtain 
the very strongest and best flavored soup 
which can be made from flesh. Liebig 
eays : *' When one pound of lean beef, free 
of fat, and separated from the bones, in 
the finely divided state in which it is used 
for beef-^usages or mince meat, is uni- 
formly mLxed with its own weight of cold 
water, slowly heated to boiling, and the 
liquid, after boiling briskly for a minute or 
two, is strained through a towel from the 
coagulated albumen and fibrin, now be- 
come hard and horny, we obtain an equal 
weight of the most aromatic soup of such 
strength as can not be obtained, even by 
boiling for hours from a piece of flesh." 
To make the best article it is desirable not 
to boil it long, as the effect is to coagulate 
and render insoluble that which was ex- 
tracted by cold water, and which should 
have been dissolved in the soup. It is 
obvious from what has been said, that a 
piece of meat introduced undivided into 



boiling water, merely thickens and appar- 
ently enriches the soup. This is effected 
by the gelatin, which is gradually extract- 
ed from the tissues, bones and other parts, 
but in a nutritive point of view, this in 
gredient is a fiction, as will be shown. 
Soup making is a kind of analysis of ali- 
mentary substances used in its preparation 
— a part is taken and a residue usually re- 
jected. Yet it is clear that we shall have 
the corapletest nourishment by taking both 
parts, as the fibre of meat and the soft- 
ened peas and beans of their respective 
soups. 

FORNWALDER. 

The true name of the apple which a cor- 
respondent in Uppor-Merion asks for, and 
which he says is sometimes called Fall 
of Water, Fallawater, Polly Wolly, Fally 
Wolly, etc., is Fornwalder. It was origin- 
ated by a man so named, near Reading, Pa. 



|J^° Sandy land is productive in propor- 
tion to the amount of fossils in the rocks 
of which the sand is made ; but it is, in all 
cases, leachy, and requires lime, clay and 
ashes to puddle it ; otherwise manure will 
soak through, and do but little good. 



OUTSIDER IN. 

In a country playhouse, after the play 
was over, and most wretchedly performed, 
an actor came upon the stage to give out 
the next play. " Pray, what is the name 
of the piece you have played tonight?" 
said a gentleman. " The Stage Coach, sir." 
" Then let me know when you perform 
it again, that I may be an outside pas- 
senger." 

The Berks County (Pa.) Snow was a 
great success. It lasted four days, and 
more than four thousand dollars was re- 
ceived at the gates! It is spoken of as 
the best county fair ever held in the State. 
Bravo ! 



ont^la f\^H^to. 



The weather to this time, Dec. 27th, has 
been remarkably mild, with none or few 
storms. Here in New-York we should 
hardly know it is winter but for the al- 
manac. As there are more of the improvi- 
dent and the poor here than almost any- 



where else this is a great mercy, and 
should be so regarded at this time of general 
depression, when employers are living, if 
at all, on past earnings, when many who 
have heretofore contributed to the general 
beneficence are utterly unable to give, and 



56 



MONTHLY REVIEW 



when some, whose charities have been 
wont to flow in a broad stream, are now 
themselves almost the objects of charity. 

But the times are brightening. Money- 
is beginning to show itself. Business, 
though dull at present, will soon revive. 
The factories are letting on the water or 
steam, and setting the machinery in motion. 
Men out of employment will soon be earn- 
ing their living, and contributing to the 
general wealth. If the signs of returning 
activity and confidence do not prove falla- 
cious, as some predict, but as we hope will 
not be the case, it will be a remarkable 
proof of the energy of the American people ; 
for if we can easily outride the tempest 
created by our exhorbitant issue of paper 
money and our consequent extravagance, 
and over-trading, and too fast living, it 
would seem as if we were equal to any 
emergency. 

Crime, it must be admitted, is rife among 
us. No less than four men are now under 
sentence of death in this city, and we be- 
lieve that if all who as richly deserve 
hanging were to experience it, the number 
would be forty instead of four. But when 
we consider what an asylum our country 
is for vagabonds from other lands, and that 
a large share of the atrocities over which 
we mourn are perpetrated by men trained 
under other forms of government and other 
religious arrangements than our own, the 
abundance of crime and rascality need not 
Bhake our confidence either in republican 
institutions or in religious freedom. It is 
doubtful whether crime, as confined to na- 
tive Americans, those who have grown up 
under the influence of civil and religious 
liberty, is on the increase. We hope it is 
not, and that future developments will 
fully vindicate our institutions against the 
charge of a demoralizing tendency, which 
certain parties abroad would fix upon 
them. 

There is always a tendency to compare 
the present unfavorably with the past. 
Homer's heroes at the siege of Troy could 
tell of greater heroes in a previous age. It 
has always been so; men were larger, 
stronger, better in the olden time. So tra- 
dition has always said, but has not always 
said it truly. We do not believe we are 



degenerating, growing old, decaying so 
fast as the London Times and some other 
foreign journals would have the world be- 
lieve. There is some reason to suspect that 
they wish to have it so, and that the wish 
is father of the thought. Nevertheless we 
shall do well to heed the warnings. Every 
American citizen shoiild feel that he has 
something to do in deciding our future, 
whether we are to be a virtuous, intelli- 
gent, moral and religious people, capable of 
self-government, or to be ignorant, immoral 
and debased, fit only to be the subjects of 
a despot. If one thing is more evident 
than another, it is, that without the just 
restraints of religion, without morality, 
without a high toned respect for integrity 
of life, no people can long avoid the pres- 
sure of a tyrant's foot. 

England, as the intelligence of the last 
month has come in, stands fully vindicated 
on the score of bravery. But alas, that 
her men in power should have thought it 
necessary to be more revoltingly cruel than 
the sepoys themselves. That the latter 
deserved to be blown into shreds before the 
cannon's mouth, there is little doubt. But 
why should Christian England exercise 
such implacable revenge? Would she 
drink water, like her Druid ancestors, from 
the skulls of her enemies? Ler her remem- 
ber that the East Indians have some reasons 
for hating her. We remember hearing it 
shown by one of her lords, in the House 
of Peers, that the excise on salt had been 
so high for more than twenty years that 
the people there were compelled to forego 
its iise — were actually driven from the 
privilege of evaporating their own sea- 
water, and eating salt on their meat. 
There is something to be said for the rebels. 
Let England remember this. If her peo- 
ple do not raise one long, loud, distinct 
voice of dissent from the revengeful cruel- 
ties of her army, we shall be more glad 
than ever that we are far from the swoop 
of her power. Englishmen have often 
told us that the present, living England is 
not the same England that inflicted direful 
cruelties on our fathers, and that would 
have hung our best men as traitors if she 
could have got hold of them ; and we have 
been inclined to believe it ; but if her peo- 



MARKETS 



51 



pie consent to the late doings of her brave 
army, we shall fear that England is not 
much better now than in the days of Lord 
North and George III., and we shall thank 
God more fervently than ever that we are 
not in her power. We confess to a disap- 
pointment in hearing no more signs of dis- 
sent from the people to the tragedies in 
the East after victory, but, perhaps, it is 
only because we have had little time to 
read the news. The English government 
is not the god of all India. Why do not 
the English people tell it so, loud enough 
for all the world to hear 1 

Agriculture has received a check for the 
present in the low prices of agricultural 
products. Our sympathies are with the 
farmers. The calculations which they 
made when putting in the seed will not be 



verified. But after all are they better off 
than others? Let them remember that 
not a few profit by lower prices than we 
liave had for the past few years ; and let 
them build their future hopes rather on 
cheap production than on high prices, and 
the present discouragement may in the 
long run redound to their benefit. 

The people of this great city seem to be 
enjoying the holidays as if nothing had 
happened. Some will, undoubtedly, re- 
ceive less costly presents than usual. 
Many, who have been accustomed to make 
princely gifts, will now be compelled to 
ask that the will be taken for the deed; 
and if there is good will — love and friend- 
ship sincere — it will be about as well, and 
all will be happy. May our friends be so 
all over the country'. 



a r lu t s 



NEW-YORK STOCK MARKET. 

The average number of beeves brought 
to the market of New-York weekly is 
3548. Number for week ending December 
15, 2972; for the week ending December 
22, 2497. Prices, former week, from 6^ 
cents for the poorest to lOf, for the best, 
averaging from 8J to 8^ ; for the latter 
week, from 7 for the poorest to 11^ for the 
best, averaging a trifle higher than pre- 
vious week. Beef cattle were sold in this 
market by the weight of the four quarters, 
rejecting the fifth quarter, as it is some- 
times called, the hide and tallow. 

It is common here to estimate the weight 
of the four quarters, when cattle are sold 
by estimate, as 56 lbs. to 100 lbs. of live 
weight, in medium cattle, but more in 
those above medium and less in those 
below. 

Thus, if an ox weighing 800 lbs. of beef, 
hide, 100 lbs., and tallow 100, if sold here 
for $100, would be quoted at 12^ cents, the 
price he brings per pound, reckoning only 
the four quarters; whereas if the same ox 
were sold in Boston or some other city, 
where a different practice prevails, for the 
same price, the hide and tallow would be 



reckoned in, and the quotation would be 
10 cents per pound. 

A person not acquainted with these facts 
would be led to suppose that beef in 
Boston was always from 2 to 3 cents per 
pound lower than in New-York, whereas 
it is probably higher in Boston, the aver- 
age of beeves taken to that market, bring, 
we believe, a little better than of those 
brought to this. 

Milch cows, with calves at their side 
sold last week for $25 to $30 for common ; 
$40 to $50 for good ; $50 to $60 for extras ; 
and a trifle higher this week. 

Veal calves sold last week at 4^ to 7 
cents per pound, live weight, according to 
quality ; this week at the same, or a trifle 
more. 

Last week sheep and lambs sold from 
6 to 10 cents per pound, net weight. A 
considerable advance upon the previous 
week. This week mutton is coming in 
plentifully, and prices remain just about 
the spmc as last week. Sheep will dress, 
if fat, 55 lbs., and sometimes as higli as 
60 lbs, 100 lbs. live weight. Usually about 
half 

Tlie price of swine last week was about 
5^ cents, gross, and from 6 to 6f, net, for 
corn fed. Market not as well supplied thia 
week, and prices advancing. 



68 



PATENTS. 



''§,tttnt f atents. 



Churns. — Benjamin Beers, of New-Fair- 
field, Conn. : I claim a rotating dasher 
with spring floats, constructed and ar- 
ranged substantially as described, so as to 
churn the cream and work the butter, sub- 
stantially in the manner set forth. 

Corn Planters. — J. H. Bonham, of Eliz- 
abethtown, 0. : I claim a conical seed re- 
servoir, G, in combination with the caps 
or disks, A, figs. 4 and 8, operated by the 
handle, x, and constructed and arranged in 
the manner and for the purpose set forth. 

I also claim the conducting spout, F, in 
combination with tilting pins, I, and block 
or bottom, E, constructed and arranged as 
set forth. 

Cutting Apparatus of Mowing Machines. 
— Chester Bullock, of Jamestown, N". Y. : 
I claim first. The mode described of at- 
tacking the cutters to guard teeth, and to 
the cutter bar, in combination with the 
shortening lip, b, by which I am enabled 
to readily detach said cutters for grinding 
or for other purposes as set forth. 

Second, A hollowed cutter, so arranged 
in connection with other parts as to pre- 
sent the same or nearly the same cutting 
angle in every part of the stroke, when the 
teeth are hinged to their axes, a, forward 
of the cutting parts as set forth. 

Treating Hemp, Flax and other Fibrous 
Material. — J. W. Burton, of Eye, England, 
and George Pye, of Ipswich, England. 
Patented in England March 20, 1856: We 
do not claim merely heating or boiling fi- 
ber in water. 

But we claim the described mode of 
treating flax or fibrous matters requiring 
like treatment, the same consisting in sub- 
jecting such as described to the action of 
a press, and to water impregnated with 
Fuller's earth and heated or boiled. 

Seed Planters. — James Carroll, of La- 
porte, 0. : I claim the employment of the 
handle, B, furnished with a discharge pas- 
sage, in combination with a slide, f, which 
,has a hand trigger, n, and with the pecu- 
liar conducting tube. A, which is furnished 
with shares, a a, substantially as set forth. 

Plows. — Jarvis Case, of Springfield 111. : 
I claim hinging the tongue to the beam of 
a plow, and extending a lever or lever 
seat, from one to the other, so that the 
driver mounted on the plow may, by said 
lever, throw the plow or plows out of the 
ground, as set forth. 

I also claim supporting the front of the 



beam on the center of an axle, c, supported 
in wheels, c c, so that said beam may be 
raised or lowered on said axle, but not af- 
fected by the passing of said wheels over 
the rough ground, as set forth and ex- 
plained. 

Agricultural Forks. — Charles Clow, 
Abram Clow, and Charles N. Clow, of Port 
Byron, N. Y. : "We are aware that manure 
forks have been constructed with cast mal- 
leable iron heads, with sockets for the 
tines; but in all such forks the sockets 
have been parallel with the sockets in 
in which the handle was inserted, which 
can not be done with barley forks, for rea- 
sons heretofore given. 

"We therefore wish it expressly under- 
stood that we do not claim a fork con- 
structed with a cast malleable iron head of 
itself considered, nor any such head in 
which the sockets for the tines are parallel 
to the socket in which the handle is in- 
serted. 

But we clain jointing the bow, E, on to 
the head, for the purpose and in the man- 
ner substantially as described. 

Planing Machine. — John D. Dale, of 
Philadelphia, Pa. : I disclaim all parts sep- 
arately of the before described machine 
that are not hereinafter specifically claim- 
ed by me. 

But I claim, first, The arrangement as 
described by which the support rollers. 
No. 17, and the feed roller, C, are raised, 
and the carriage, E, simultaneously secur- 
ed, whereby I make a permanent bed and 
continuous feed, and by lowering the 
same, I make a reciprocating moving bed 
plate or carriage, and am enabled to 
change from one to the other, at the will 
of the operator. 

Second, I claim the arrangement, where- 
by an adjustable cutting head. No. 37, is 
formed on the end of the movable carriage, 
E, for the uses and purposes as described. 

Third, I also claim the combination and 
arrangement of the method set forth for 
attaching side cutters, by which they are 
both rendered adjustable in the manner 
specified and described by letters, G G, re- 
presenting cranes supporting the side cut- 
ters hanging on arms, K K, supported and 
adjusted by guide braces, L L, and screw 
nuts, J J, all for the purpose and in the 
manner set forth and described. 

Fourth, I also claim the particular ar- 
rangements in combination, by which the 
pressure bar, N, and the transverse bar, Q, 
are made to raise, and by which they are 



PATENTS 



59 



made to correspond with the circumference 
of the rotary cutter by raising the superior 
feed roller, D, for the purpose as set forth. 

Machine for Boring Hubs. — Zini Doo- 
little. Perry, Ga. : I do not claim the use 
of a shaft or a knife set in the shaft ; nei- 
ther do I claim the yokes, F F, or feed 
spring, H. 

But I claim the employment of a hollow 
sliaft, the rod, C, and the projection, a, 
with the nut, E, for the purpose of expand- 
ing the cutter, B, when the whole is ar- 
ranged as shown, substantially for the 
» purpose specified. 

Life Preservers. — A. J, Gibson, of Wor- 
cester, Mass. : I do not claim the belt, nor 
do I claim the construction of an inflated 
life-preserver with separate air chambers ; 
neither do I claim|(if itself the use of buoy- 
ant paddles fitted and attached to the 
hands as an aid in swimming. 

But I claim a life-preserver, composed of 
a belt. A, arm floats, B B, and buoyant 
paddles, C C, arranged and connected and 
furnished with straps or their equivalents 
to attach it to the person, substantially as 
described. 

Machine for Cutting Metallic Bars. — 
Samuel Hall, of New-York City : I claim 
the employment of one or more revolving 
shear blades, fastened to the end or face of 
a revolving hollow cylinder as described, 
in combination with a stationai-y shear 
blade or blades for the purpose described. 

Printing Press. — Charles W. Hawkes, of 
Boston, Mass. : I claim, first. The cam lever, 
C, operated by a vibrating platen, sub- 
Btantially in the manner and for the pur- 
pose set forth. 

Second, I claim securing carriage ways 
to the adjustable bed, so that when the 
bed is moved by altering the impression 
the roller carriage will move with it, and 
keep the rollers always in a proper posi- 
tion to roll the form evenlj", in combina- 
tion with the roller carriage, substantially 
as described and set forth. 

Third, I claim the nipper lever operat- 
ing in the manner and for the purpose set 
forth. 

Fourth, I claim the trip, in combination 
with the ni|)])er lever, Bubstantially in the 
manner and for the purpose specified. 

Fifth, I cluim the combination and ar- 
rangement of mechanism specified, for re- 
ceiving the cards to be printed, and deliv- 
ering them after they are printed, substan- 
tially as described. 

IIarvester-h. — Seymour and Leicester 
Johnson, Jr., of Avon, N. Y. : We claim 
the arrangement of the outer wheel, C, 
drive wheel. A, and inner wheel, B, in 
combination with the adjustable draught 



pole, R, and movable blocks, v v, the 
whole being arranged for joint operation, 
substantially as set forth. 

Propellers. — Aimer Johnson, of Buffalo, 
N. Y. : I claim constructing propellers, 
which embody the distinctive features of 
my invention, substantially as set forth. 

Arrangement of Life and Treasure 
Buoy for Vessels. — F. D. Lee, of Charles- 
ton, S. C. : I claim the arrangement of the 
buoy provided with the means and appli- 
ances set forth, in relation to the chest or 
safe and indicating buoy, and the decks of 
the vessel as and for the purposes described. 

Plows. — Joel Lee, of Galesburg, 111. : I 
claim the combination and arrangement of 
of the two wheels, E and E', attached to 
the different sections of the beam swivel- 
ing quarter around in opposite directions, 
and bracing the plow as described when 
used in the manner and for the purpose set 
forth. 

Seed Planters. — Joel Lee, of Galesburg, 
111. : I claim the bevel wheels, D D, con- 
structed, arranged and operated in the 
manner set forth, when combined with the 
swivel tube, C, for the purpose described. 

Steam Boilers. — David Mathew, of Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. : I claim the arrangement of 
the draft plates, e and f, in relation to the 
inclined tubes or flues, D, as and for the 
purpose set forth. 

Securing Hatches of Vessels. — Edward 
S. Keyser, of New-York City : I claim the 
securing of ship hatches, and making the 
joints water tight, by means of the hollow 
flanged ribs, B, and the rubber and plates 
contained within it, which are pressed 
down over the seams or joints by the 
screws, d, substantially as set forth. 

Bed Hives. — Samuel Kelly, of Washing- 
ton, D. C. : I claim the sliding frames, F, 
removable pins, I, and dividing zinc plates, 
B', in combination with the movable pas- 
sage ways, and the sliding valve, O, ar- 
ranged in the manner and for the purposes 
set forth. 

Potato Planters. — Stephen H. Strong, 
of Brunswick, O. : I claim the seeding 
wheel, B, armed with adjusting buckets, 
I), and checks, E, in combination with the 
hopper, C, and sliding bottom, R, in the 
manner and for the purpose set forth. 

Ice-Breaking Boats. — James D. Foster, 
of Cincinnati, Ohio, and H. C. Foster and 
John Q. Miller, of Springfield, Ohio: We 
claim making the breaking bars detacha- 
ble in the manner and for the purposes set 
forth. 

Shingle. — Stephen R. Tenney and Asa 
Bennett, of Uubbardstown, Mass. : We do 



60 



PATENTS 



not broadly claim the preservation of wood 
by carbonization. 

But we claim a carbonized shingle, made 
substantialljr as set forth. 

Reaping and Mowing Machines. — Henry 
(t. Vanderwerken, of Greenbush, N. Y. : I 
claim the combination of the stationary 
and bracing gear, F, with the auxiliary 
frame, A', main frame, A, driving wheel, 
G, and pinion, H G, arranged as and for 
the purposes set forth. 

Construction of Salt Pans. — William S, 
Worthington, of Newton, N. Y. : I claim 
the employment within a bi-ine-evaporat- 
ing pan, of a grating or perforated fiilse 
bottom, C C, substantially as and for the 
purpose specified. 

Machine for Sticking Pins on Paper. — 
Thaddeus Fowler, (assignor to the Ameri- 
can Pin Company,) of Waterbury, Conn. : 
I claim the combination of the plate or 
form, A, with the slotted form, C, when 
constructed, and made to deposit the pins, 
substantially as described. 

I also claim the combination of the slid- 
ing frame, E, with the slotted form, G, 
when constructed and used as described. 

Reaping and Mowing Machines. — J. W. 
Brokaw and Thomas Harding, (assignor to 
Benjamin H. Warden, John W. Brokaw 
and Jonathan G. Child,) of Springfield, 
Ohio : We claim the peculiar method of 
regulating the bight of the cut, and reliev- 
ing the draft on the joints of the tongue, 
by means of the bar, K, in combination 
with a tongue, I, hinged to the finger bar, 
G, or front of the main frame of the ma- 
chine, both being constructed, operated 
and arranged in relation to each other, in 
the manner as described. 

Steering Apparatus for Vessels. — Chas. 
Weed, (assignor to himself and Stephen B. 
Cram,) of Boston, Mass. : I claim placing 
the parallel screws, E and F, one immedi- 
ately above the other, and connecting 
them by the gears, H and G, the steering 
wheel being attached to one of the screws, 
in the manner substantially as described. 

Second, I claim the stationary guide bar, 
L, as arranged with the grooved nuts, M 
and N, and bearing blocks, D, as set forth. 

Revolving Fire-Arm. — Ethan Allen, of 
Worcester, Mass. 

Cut-off Valve Gear of Steam Engines. 
— Horatio Allen, of New-York City. 

Adjustable Gage for Dovetails. — Juan 
S. L. Babbs, of Boston, Mass., and Amos 
H. Ray, of Providence, R. I. 

Cultivators. — David P. Daggett, of Pal- 
myra, N. Y. : I claim the peculiar con- 
struction of parts whereby the frame of 



the cultivator may be elevated or depress- 
ed in relation to the surface of the soil, 
either parallel to the plane of the surface 
or inclined thereto forward or backward 
at any desired angle by means of the lever 
beam, D, swivel wheel, I, swivel clevis, H, 
and adjustable wheels, C, combined, ar- 
ranged and operating in the manner and 
for the purpose specified. 

Machinery . for Lifting Water. — Isaac 
C. Foster, of Union City, Tenn. 

Corn and Cob Mill. — Harvey Hall, of 
Mansfield, Ohio: I claim the coneandmeal 
trough, east in one piece, for the purpose 
of strengthening the cone, and giving a 
firm base for its attachment, as set forth. 

Corn Planters. — J. J. S. Hassler, of Rip- 
ley, Va. 

Tubes for Seed Planters. — Joseph G. 
Haines, of Dublin, Ind. : I claim as new, in 
the described combination with the tooth 
of a grain or seed-drill, the tube or grain 
duct, I, composed of a close coil of wire 
constructed and applied as set forth. 

Dress of Millstones. — Nelson Hay ward, 
of Cleveland, Ohio. 

Egg Beaters. — John B. Heich, of Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. 

Horse Rakes. — Valentine Hyatt, of 
Westfield, Ohio : I claim the combination 
of the lever, L, cross bar, C, levers, C C, 
and arms, G G, for raising the rake from 
the ground when not in use, as described. 

Cooking Stoves. — ^Samuel Pierce, of 
Troy, N. Y. 

Seeding Machines. — Charles G. James, of 
Dayton, Ohio. 

Seeding Machines. — Hiram Kellogg, of 
McHenry, 111. 

Cotton and Hay Presses. — James Mas- 
sey, of Thomasville, Ga. 

Hubs of Carriage Wheels. — Cornelius 
Merry, of New-York City. 

Seeding Machines. — Samuel Mills, of 
New-Castle, Ohio. 

Portable Field Fence. — ^Tliomas B. Page, 
of Laurel, Ohio. 

Portable Sawotll. — T. T. Prosser, of 
Oconomowock, Wis. 

Cheese Presses. — C. H. Robertson, of 
Middleport, N. Y. 

Lubricating Oil Gups. — Enoch N. Ro- 
land, of Baltimore, Md. 

Steam Cotton Press. — John Roy, of New- 
Orleans, La. 

Bracing Springs of Vehicles. — C. W. 
Saladee, of Columbus, Oliio. 



A D V E R T I S E ?\I E N T S . 



61 



Bayonet Fastemnu. — J. N. Ward, of 
New-York City. ! 

Draaving Knike. — R. N. Watrous, of i 
Charlestown, O. 

Machines for Pegging Boots and Seiols. | 
— Wm. Wells, (assignor to Edgar M. Ste- j 
vens,) of Boston, Mass. 

Sewing Machines. — Henry Belin, (as- ; 
signer to himself and Thomas Sewell,) of j 
New- York City. 

Seeding Machines. — John Critcherson, 
(assignor to John Warren,) of Boston, Mass. 

Snow Plows. — Newcomb Demary, Jr., 
of Attica, N. Y., assignor to James Yates, 
of Philadelphia, Pa. 

Grate Dampers. — John O'Brien, (assign- 
or to Owen Collins and John Dunley,) of 
New-York City. 

Straw Cuiters. — Moses Clements (de- 
ceased,) late of Worcester, Mass. 



Winnowing Machines. — John Shipley, of 
Princeton, Wis. 

Feet Warmers. — Heber G. Seekins, Sen., 
and Heber G. Seekins, Jr., of Elyria, Ohio. 

Life-Preservers. — James E. Serrell ami 
William Davis, of New- York City. 

Pumps. — Harmon A. Sheldon, of Middle- 
bury, Vt. 

Mode of Supporting Reels for Harvest- 
ers. — ^Thomas I. Stealy, of Middletown, Va. 

Boring Machine. — La Fayette Stevens, 
of Elmira, N. Y. 

Infantine Exercising Chair. — John Sa- 
win, D. J. Goodspeed, and John H. Minott, 
of Gardner, Mass. 

Bagasse Furnaces. — Moses Thompson, of 
New- York City. 

Steam Boiler.— F. R. Walker, of Tully. 
Mo. 



^ Jr b e r t i s e 111 ni t s . 




NEW AND IMPROVED SELF-EAKING REAPER. 

The best yet offered. Address PELLS ilANNY, Freeport, III. 



DEPOT OF THE 
Breckenridge Coal Oil Co., 

98 Greenwich Street, New- York. 



J. THOMPSOJV, AGKNT. 

Office of the Delaware, Lackawanna and 
Western Uuilroad Company, 

ScBANTON, Pa , June 16, 1857 



![ 



Capt. Joseph M. Brown, 
President Breckenridge Coal Oil Company: 

Dear Sir : — We have been using the Breckenridge 
Lubricating Oil in the shops and on railroad en- 
gines. It gives entire satisfaction — is free from 



gum and works free — Is superior to Sperm oil, re- 
quiring one-third less than Sperm oil to do tlie 
same work, and one-half the labor to keep machi- 
nery and locomotives clean. 
Very respectfully, 

WATTS COOK, Master Mechanic. 

JAMES ARCUIBALD, General Agent. 

Crystal Palace, New-York— Exhibition of the > 
American Institute for the year 1857. J 

I have made several Photometrical tests of the 
power of the light given by Ihe Breckenridge Coul 
Oil, burned in " Dietz A Co.'s Breckenridge Lamp 
for tlie Million," and find it to give a light equal to 
SEVBN Pporm candles. 

WM. W. BATCIIELDER, 

4G3 Broadway, New-York. 



62 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



f lillS' iPiVO Sm M4EI1IE. 

PATENTED MARCH 6, 1855. 




Farmers, Mechanics, Road-Builders, Speculators, 

and all progressive men, your attention is 

called to this valuable Patent. 



My Stump Machine must go before the Mower and 
Reaper. It hag no equal. It ia simple in its construction, 
easily worked, and not liable to get out of repair. lis 
common weight is about 1500 lbs It is easily borne from 
place to place, and it can be loaded in three minutes, and 
unloaded, set up, and a lusty stump drawn, all within 
fifteen minutes. Once fastened, it will pull an acre and a 
half of stumps without changing anchorage. A single 
yoke uf cattle, or one strong horse, is siitficient to work 
iU With such a team, if necessary, a power of from 
three to five hundred tons can be made to bear upon a 
8in!{le stump ! 

One man can work it, though two work it at better 
advantage. Tlie time requited to extract stumps from 
8i.\ inches to four feet in diameter will vary from two to 
ten minutes. With this Machine, standing trees may be 
taken out. and large rocks removed from their beds ; and 
It is tlie best Machine ever invented, not only for pulling 
Slumps, but for moving buildings, and other heavy bodies. 
All the iron used is wrought, of peculiar quality, imported, 
fanstaming 57 tons to the inch ! 

Th ■ price of these Machines varies according to weight 
and size — the weight of the largest being about 1500 lbs. 
For the purpose of transportation, it can be b'jxed up, with 
the exception of the lever and wheels, in a box ten feet 
long and about fifteen inches square. I reside at Orange, 
Massachusetts, where I manufanure this article on a 
larfje scale, and hold myself ready to furnish it, or sell 
rif.'hts to use it, in any State or town in the Union, now 
unsold, on terms most reasonable. 

Ttiis patent begins to be appreciated. All who wish to 
brill.; so good a thing into use, and thereby make a " pile 
of moaey,'" should come to Orange, see the inventor, see 
the workings of the Machine with their own eyes, and if 
not perfectly satisfied respecting its merits, all their ex- 
penses shiiU be cheerfully paid. 

Tr.ese Machines, properly boxed for transportation, are 
8,ild by NouRSB, Mason & Co., Parker, White & Co., 
and ScuDDER & Co., of Boston ; and by E. L. Allen, 189 
Water Street, New- York. 

WILLIAM W. WILLIS. 

REFERENCES. — Hon. Simon Brown, Editor New- 
England Farmer; 3. A. Nash, Editor Plouoh, Loom, 
and Anvil; and Mr Moore, Editor Rural New-Yorker. 

Ladies' Companion Sewing-Machines. 

Price from $12 to $30. 




Fob simplicity, durability, and good work, 
they are unsurpassed by any others, are made 
entirely under Pratt's Patents, and are war- 
ranted to give satisfaction. Samples of work 
sent by mail. 

SALESROOMS 

113 Washington St., Boston; 577 Broadway, 
N. Y. ; corner Ninth and Chestnut sts., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ; 55 High st., Providence, R. I. ; 
68 State st., Albany, N. Y. 

wanted. Apply to Boston office,, 2t. 



PATENT AGENCY 



CHEMICAL LABORATORY, 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 

DR. DANIEL BREED, late Assistant and acting Chicj 
Examiner in the United States Patent Office, has estab- 
lished at Washington, D. 0., a PATENT AGENCY in 
connection with a CHEMICAL LABORATORY. He 
will prepare papers and drawings, and make applications 
for Letters Patent in the United States and in Foreigu 
Countries, and will give especial attention to chemical 
cases, and also to infringements, interferences, appeals, 
re-issues, and rejected applications. 

Having long been familiar with the Library and Model 
Rooms of the Patent Office, to all of which he still has 
access, he possesses extraordinary facilities for making 
thorough examinations in regard to the patentability of 
inventions, being enabled also to search the standard 
works in German and French, and thus to give to invent- 
ors, and others, reliable information concerning inven- 
tions and the arts in Europe and America. 

The Laboratory is intended chiefly for experiment and 
analysis, for the purpose of testing and improving pro- 
cesses of manufacture and apparatus employed in the 
Chemical Arts, as also for the purpose of procuring and 
defending Patent Rights. After many years devoted to 
Chemistry — having studied in the German Laboratories 
under Liebig and Lowig, Dr. Breed feels confident in 
offering his services to Inventors and others interestei! in 
the chemical arts and manufactures, and to all who may 
require the services of a practical chemist. 

Fees are most conveniently sent by mail, in drafts on 
New-York, Baltimore, Boston, or Pbiladelphia. 

Models may be forwarded by Express, and all other 
business may be transacted by letter. Persons may 
also forward models and fees, and transact other business 
with Dr. Breed, through Messrs. Parish & Nash, editors of 
The Plo^igh, Loom, and Anvil. 

lajg— Patents procured through this Office, will r>e 
noticed in the Ploxigh, Loom, and Anvil, and full de- 
scriptions given therein, when desired, without charge. 
June, tf. 



BLAKf S PATENT EIRE AND WEATHER-PROOF 

The only Genuine Article in the Market. 

TO BE HAD DRir AND IN OIL, AT 

205 PEARL STREET, New-York, 

Of the Proprietor, 
CHAS. B. GRANNISS,'\ 

Oct, lyr. ^^SHCcessor to the Patentee, WM. BLAKE. 




aMHRtcAK umzm' mamm. 



Vol. XI. 



FEBRUARY, 1858. 



No. 



1^ g r i ni 1 1 It r a I , 



HINTS FOR YOUNG FARMERS. 

We are older in the business of prac- 
tical farming than most of our readers ; 
and although not a few of them may be 
wiser than we, there are others who 
think they have much to learn. 

We have correspondents and many 
readers who are young in years, or 
young in their business, and have the 
good sense to think that the sober expe- 
rience of a sober man, who has traveled 
the same path before them, is worth 
something. Some are young men who 
have just commenced farming. Others 
are retired citizens just turned farmers. 
Others again are mercantile men who 
have amateur farms at their country 
place — to help get rid of some of their 
city profits ; and these classes are ex- 
actly the people for whom these articles 
are intended. 

Our wiser readers will be willing that 
we should give a limited space to their 
brethren of less experience. We mean 
to tell them how to do every-day, com- 
mon work, at the best time, and in the 
best way. There are as many ways of 
farming as there are of killing cats ; and 
there is a wide diflcrence at the end of 
the year, depending upon the time and 



way in which work is done. So all you 
wise men who know everything, turn 
over a leaf, while others, who want to 
learn how to make the pot boil and to 
keep it boiling, read on. We begin 
with 

THE WINTER CAKE OF STOCK. 

Horses should be kept in warm but 
well-ventilated stalls, and apart from 
other animals, so as not to be offended 
with their breath. Pure air is almost 
as important for the lungs of a horse as 
for those of a human being. Early cut 
hay is not as important, perhaps, for the 
horse as for some other animals ; but it 
should be well cured, free from must, 
having no smoke when handled. Oats 
are the best grain, and probably herds- 
grass, cut when nearly out of the bloom, 
and thoroughly dried, so as not to have 
been heated in the mow, is the best hay 
for this animal. If a horse is fed on hay 
in the least smoky, it is better tcv sprin- 
kle a little water on it, that the smoke 
may not rise and be inhaled. But wc 
sliould be sorry to feed a horse on hay 
so foul as to require this precaution. 
Cut feed, with corn or oats, or a mixture 
of both ground and mingled together, 
with water to soften the hav or straw, i^ 



66 



AGRICULTURAL. 



better for horses that work constantly, 
because they will eat it sooner, and 
thereby get more time to lie down and 
rest. Corn is a better food for horses 
hard at work than for those that are 
standing much of the time idle. If a 
horse is fed partly on carrots, it tends 
strongly to keep his digestive organs in 
good condition, and to secure a perfect 
digestion and assimilation of all his food. 
Hence we believe that a peck of oats and 
a peck of carrots will go as far in sus- 
taining a horse as two pecks of oats ; not 
that the carrots, watery as they are, con- 
tain as much nutriment as oats, but be- 
cause they secure a better assimilation. 
The floor of the horse-stall should be 
tight. Many a horse has caught the 
consumption from lying on a single floor 
with wide cracks, and with insuflBcient 
bedding. Unless the barn is well 
sheathed, there should be an inside lin- 
ing around the stall, that no current of 
air may strike the horse when put, wea- 
ried and sweating, to his night's rest. 
Never allow a horse to drink cold water 
when hot, unless you intend to drive 
him again immediately, and then not too 
much. To leave a sweaty horse stand- 
ing in the cold air is barbarous. We 
honor the piety of our fathers who built 
churches, but we think it was not the 
worst part of their piety that led them 
to build good warm horse sheds at the 
same time; and if there is anything that 
we fear these good men will never be 
forgiven, it is that some of them, we 
hope not many, built their churches on 
tall hills, heard long sermons on bleak 
wintry days, and left their horses tied to 
a rail fence the while. 

In any climate but the mildest, horned 
cattle should be stabled by night, and 
have warm sheds to retire to by day. If 
the sun shines they will find it out, and 
will prefer the open air. Let them have 
water in the yard by all means. If they 
can have it in the manger, as is now 
practiced by some farmers, so as never 
to be deprived of it an hour when thirs- 



ty, it would be better. But this is per- 
haps more than can be expected in gen- 
eral practice. The stabling of cattle 
really adds but little to the labor of car- 
rying them through the winter. Their 
manure, if plenty of absorbents are used, 
has a greatly increased value ; much 
food is saved ; and they come out in far 
better condition in spring. The stabling 
is of more importance to working oxen 
and milch cows, but is worth the extra 
labor for all. The ox is a patient crea- 
ture ; will endure imcomplaining what- 
ever you put upon him, even if you 
leave him to sleep on snow in the cold 
wind after he has done you a good day's 
work. But is this a good reason why 
he should be left to suffer ? Humanity 
forbids ; interest forbids ; the generous 
and the selfish in our nature alike for- 
bid ; and we believe the Creator of man 
and of the inferior animals will hold the 
former to a strict account for the treat- 
ment of the latter. The horse and the 
ox are grateful to man for his care of 
them. Shall man be ungrateful for their 
invaluable services ? Cattle should be 
fed as regularly as possible from day to 
day. They know the time about as well 
as the old clock in the corner can tell 
you. If hungry, they will fret but little 
till the time comes, but are very uneasy 
if there is much delay after the usual 
time. The secret of thrift in cattle, with 
but a fair allowance of food, is quiet, 
contentment. Who does not know that 
a cow taken from her wonted home, will 
diminish her milk for a few days, even 
on better food than she had been used 
to ? Almost any animal will loose flesh 
if removed to a new place. If the keeper 
is changed and less kind usage is expe- 
rienced, the same place and the same 
food will not produce as much thrift. 
Neither cattle nor horses should be made 
to swallow their own breath. If hay is 
saturated with their breath, they loathe 
it. It is better, therefore, to feed twice 
in the morning and twice at night, and 
to give them a lunch at noon. A little 



AGRICULTURAL 



C7 



at a time, to be devoured before being 
much dampened by their breathing on 
it, is attended with less waste. 

Early-cut, clean, well-cured hay can 
not be much improved by cutting, be- 
cause it is perfectly digested without 
cutting ; whatever nutriment it contains 
is assimilated ; and nothing more than 
it contains could be extracted if cut ever 
so finely. With straw, corn stalks, 
coarse, late-cut hay, it is otherwise. If 
cut, these will be more perfectly digest- 
ed, and the result will be more favora- 
ble. It has been asserted that forty per 
cent, is gained by cutting forage for cat- 
tle. This may be true, as an average 
gain. We rather think it is. But it 
can not be true of each kind of forage. 
We must throw our common sense over- 
board before we could believe that 
bright, June-cured hay can be much im- 
proved by cutting. The cattle love it 
without ; it is tender, luscious to their 
taste, and they masticate it perfectly. 
Cutting can not enh-.nce its value 10 per 
cent, nor 5. The buts of corn-stalks, 
on the other hand, may be 90 per cent 
better, if cut a quarter of an inch long 
and steamed, with the least possible 
sprinkling of salt, because in this state 
they are pretty good food for cattle, 
whereas, if left whole, the animals would 
about as soon perish with hunger as eat 
them. That the value of forage as a 
whole is increased by running it through 
the straw-cutter, there can be not doubt ; 
but the idea that all kinds are equally 
improved is absurd. 

Let the stables be kept clean, also the 
barn-floor and the open spaces about the 
barn, as well as the entrances. It re- 
quires but little more labor — some think 
less — to be neat, than to be slovenly. 
Tidy housekeepers, if they do not live 
as easily, certiiinly do as comfortably as 
untidy. It is so with the keepers of 
stock. Neatness outside of the parlor 
and kitchen are of some consequence. 
It is attended with comfort and adds not 
a little to prosperity. 



Sheep should have a warm retreat, 
but should also be allowed at pleasure 
to run out and take the sun and pure 
air. Early-cut hay, or well-cured second 
crop, with a little corn, is their best food. 

The pig-pen should be constructed 
with two apartments, one warm and dry, 
with dry nesting ; the other such as to 
indulge the filthy occupant in his root- 
ing, manure manufacturing propensities ; 
and these propensities may be turned to 
a good account by throwing in plent}' of 
materials for the pigs to work over and 
compost. In good farming, where the 
home manures are principally relied up- 
on, ten loads to every swine will be car- 
ried out in the course of a year, not as 
active as Peruvian guano, but worth 
more in proportion to its cost. Corn, 
ground ordinarily fine and scalded, and 
then reduced in temperature to about 
blood heat, by the addition of skim milk, 
whey, slops, etc., is the most economical 
food for swine. In England pork is 
made mainly from barley, but would not 
be if that climate was adapted to the 
corn crop as ours is. 

Hens should be laying smartly by this 
time, and if they are not, it is the fault 
of the owner. The true economy on the 
farm is, to keep a pretty good flock of 
hens and chickens, to have facilities for 
shutting them up certain parts of the 
year, when they would do injury out, 
but to let them run at large, to de- 
stroy insects and get for most of their 
living what nothing else would consume, 
when it can be done with safety to the 
garden and other crops, and when no 
broils will be created by their depreda- 
tions in the neighborhood. When con- 
fined for security to crops or for the 
sake of peace among neighbors, let them 
have access to gravel and to carbonate of 
lime, in some such form as broken 
shells, ground bones, or slacked lime, 
sprinkled about their premises. The shell 
of the egg consists mostly of carbonate 
of lime ; and the ordinary food does not 
contain enough of this to answer the de* 



68 



AGRICULTURAL 



mands of the hen in laying time. Hens 
require a meat diet in part. Throw them 
bones to pick, and occasionally bits of 
meat useless for other purposes. In 
summer they will supply themselves 
with animal food in the form of grass- 
hoppers and other insects, but should 
be supplied with it in winter in other 
forms, if you would have plenty of eggs. 
February has the reputation of being 
the coldest month in the year, and sure- 
ly the coming February will not have 
much to boast of in that line, unless it 
shall be colder than its predecessor, Jan- 
uary, has yet been. Yesterday and this 
day, January lith and 15th, have been 
like May or October days, strayed away 
from their proper place in the calendar. 



ON THE SUBJECTS FOR A FARM- 
ERS' MAGAZINE. 

BY A farmer' S SON. 

Mr. Editor : — You asked the other 
day my opinion as to the most desirable 
method of conducting a farmers' period- 
ical. Your motive doubtless arose from 
your anxiety to supply your readers 
with the information most required by 
them; and although your own experi- 
ence and good judgment can hardly be 
likely to hear from me anything new 
upon the subject, I shall be glad if any 
remarks of mine should suggest one 
hint to you that may further your views, 
and aid you in the arduous task that de- 
volves on you, in common with others 
who seek to please or to instruct a large 
class of readers, distributed over thou- 
sands of miles of greatly varying cli- 
mate. 

The wants of many, I know I can lay 
before you,; and the wants of many 
more, you doubtless already amply sup- 
ply. But I need not tell you that read- 
ers of aU classes and on all subjects, are 
often unreasonable and thoughtless. — 
They forget much you have told them 
already ; and every reader too often takes 
up a magazine as if it had been written, 
or should as he thinks have been writ- 



ten, for himself alone. His own wants 
he knows ; the wants of others he neith- 
er thinks of nor cares for. If he does 
not find exactly what he wants, or what 
he thinks it should contain, he throws 
down the number disgusted and annoy- 
ed, and vents his impatient displeasure 
on the "incompetency of writers," if not 
their ignorance ; and " vows to take in 
such a milk-and-water thing as that no 
longer." Fortunately however for the 
publisher, before the gentleman's sub- 
scription runs out, some article in a sub- 
sequent number is lucky enough to 
please him, and then he forgets his ill 
humor, and on he goes with his maga- 
zine. Now this line of proceeding is fool- 
ish. It is unjust to editors. It is the 
way to remain in ignorance; and con- 
sequently the man who so acts is unjust 
to himself. 

Magazines and periodicals of all des- 
criptions are written each for some par- 
ticular class ; and to subjects connected 
with that class should be, and usually 
are, their contents directed. But when 
the individual of that class takes up 
such a paper, he should do so in the 
spirit, not of search for the special sub- 
ject that happens to interest him at the 
moment, (for it is obvious that as each 
reader may do the same, the editor 
could not please all,) but, in the spirit 
of general research to see what he can 
glean from the pages that will add to his 
stock of knowledge. Taken up in that 
spirit, if he finds the subjects treated of 
bear a fitting relation to the character of 
the periodical, and that they are written 
in a fair, common sense style, he has no 
cause to complain if there are other mat- 
ters that he would have preferred to see 
in the pages. The pearl fisher does not 
find a pearl in every oyster, but is con- 
tent to open many fruitlessly for the 
sake of the one that has the pearl. — 
Readers of periodical literature may 
with advantage to themselves follow the 
fisherman's example. 

But to be entitled to expect that course 



AGRICULTURAL 



69 



of conduct in their readers, editors must 
also do their part ; and if they can not 
fill their literary oyster with pearls, they 
must at least take care that their oyster 
is " full of meat." In short, the editor 
must provide always good substantial 
literary food for a hungry reader ; but 
the choice of that food, provided it be 
digestable by the class for whom he 
writes, must be left to himself. 

Now in the spirit, as regards editor 
and readers, that I have penned the 
above remarks, let us consider the sub- 
jects for a farmers' magazine. 

The great failing in the farming com- 
munity is a proneness to routine. As 
their fathers did, so do they. Distrust- 
ful of the discoveries of science, and I 
fear I must add, too little inclined to 
take the trouble of investigation, there is 
a disposition to go on in the same beaten 
track, heedless of the future, thoughtful 
only of present wants, and if not content, 
at least willing to drag on a listless ex- 
istence if those wants are satisfied. 

I know there are numerous exceptions 
to this picture ; which many may sup- 
pose to originate in a feeling of superior- 
ity if not of conceit in the writer. That 
is not so. Let any man coolly reflect and 
compare the energy displayed in the life 
of a merchant or a trader in any large 
city, with the coiu"se of life pursued by 
the agriculturists, as a body, and then say 
if there is not far too much ground for 
the correctness of the character I have 
sketched above. 

The old adage, that " We may take a 
horse to the pond, but we can't make 
him drink," is true. But we must take 
the horse to the pond, or he can not 
drink if he wishes. So the agricultural 
editor's first care should be to lay before 
his readers the improvements of the 
age. His first duty I think is to take 
care that all new discoveries, whether in 
implements to facilitate tillage, of new 
crops for culture, or of improved meth- 
ods of cultivation, are explained in de- 
tail, so that the advantages of the seve- 



ral subjects are fully made known ; and 
this as completely and sufficiently as 
may enable the farmer, without refer- 
ence beyond the pages of the paper, to 
avail himself of the information. For 
it should always be borne in mind that 
the time of the farmer is valuable, and 
that much traveling is not properly 
within his province, and consequently 
unless the information is afforded him 
in a shape that he can either from the 
perusal of it or by letter, make it avail- 
able, the benefit to him is only pros- 
pective. 

The first requirement I set down, 
therefore, for the /armers^ magazine is, 
papers explanatory of new discoveries in 
agriculture. 

The subject next in importance appears 
to him to be, to keep the farmers well vp 
to their work for the season. With this 
view there is much utility, especially in 
a monthly periodical, in having a good 
paper by the editor surveying the gene- 
ral work of a farm for the month, point- 
ing out the kind of work requiring at- 
tention, and containing suggestions as to 
the most ehgible mode of executing it, 
with reference both to cost and labor. 

In furtherance of the same object, ori- 
ginal papers on particular subjects, ap- 
plicable to the season at which they ap- 
pear, are also very useful, and in this 
the readers may contribute frequently to 
aid the editor and benefit their fellow- 
laborers in the agricultural world. It 
requires no literary skill to write an ac- 
ceptable article. Plain, practical facts, 
the result of experience, is what farm- 
ers want ; and these any farmer can ex- 
press in familiar language. 

In my opening remarks I alluded to 
the individual wants of particular read- 
ers ; and although as I then said, it is 
impossible for an editor to anticipate 
these, there yet remains a mode in which 
they can be satisfied. Because when- 
ever information is wanted by one read- 
er, the chances are that man}' more 
stand in need of the same. Therefore 



70 



AGRICULTURAL. 



such being the case, a periodical paper 
is the precise channel through which to 
obtain it. 

Let every farmer who is in doubt, or 
in want of information, write to the edi- 
tor and ask for it. And this brings me 
to the next head of subjects for the Mag- 
azine, namely : 

Correspondence, and discussion ty 
means of it, relative to farming matters 
of all descriptions. 

If the readers of any periodical will 
only take up their pens and discuss their 
opinions freely, but in the language and 
spirit of good humor, and a desire for 
knowledge, (as opposed to a desire for 
victory in a contest of words,) there is 
no department of a magazine that will 
become more useful and interesting. — 
Life and activity should pervade every 
page of a periodical, and correspondence 
of such a nature is precisely the element 
to impart that vivacity which it is diffi- 
cult for a single individual, tied dowia to 
the monotony of the editorial chair, al- 
ways to give to his effusions, however 
valuable they may be in substance. 

Moreover, ignorance on subjects that 
our calling assumes we are acquainted 
with, is regarded by too many as prefer- 
able to the exposure of it to others. 
Hence we too often remain in ignorance 
which inquiry would speedily dispel. The 
pages of a magazine present the ready 
means for us to learn, without our identity 
being known, and consequently there is 
no better mode by which we can avoid 
remaining in a state of ignorance, which, 
when there is open a way to avoid it, is 
decidedly unjust to ourselves no less 
than to those dependent on oui* exer- 
tions. 

My paper has, I fear, aheady exceeded 
useful limits; and having pointed out 
what appears to me to be the more im- 
portant topics for agricultural periodi- 
cals I will close with the hope, not that 
you can derive information from it, but 
at least that your readers will aid j^ou, by 
attending to my last suggestion, freely 



to communicate their own experience, 
and by their inquiries, point out to you 
their wants. I know well enough that 
your best exertions will then not be 
wanting to fulfill them. 



ON THE TREATMENT OF MA- 
NURE. 

BY A PRACTICAL FARMER AND GAEDEKER. 

To talk intelligibly about manure, it 
is quit*} important to know what manure 
is. Manure, if intended to convey the 
idea of food for plants, is often a terrible 
misnomer. Fresh dung, or fresh urine, 
is never food for plants. There is no 
element in the fi'esh excretia of animals 
in the undecomposed vegetable waste of 
farms, such as straw, stalks, weeds, etc., 
or in the muck and peat of swamps that 
can afford sustenance to vegetation. 
Plants can never appropriate an element 
until it is prepared for them. They 
have no digestive organs, and the change 
in their food must be perfected in the 
soil, which is at the same time the gra- 
nary and the stomach of plants. The 
waste of manures can take place only by 
two methods. 

First. By solution 'in water, which 
may run off upon the surface or sink 
into the ground. 

Second. By their preparation for food 
of plants prematurely, or in such posi- 
tions that plants are not present to ap- 
propriate them, which preparation al- 
ways reduces manures to gases. Now 
let any one thoroughly comprehend 
these positions, and he will never be at 
a loss to discover whether his manure is 
exposed to waste. 

Until manure has undergone such fer- 
mentation as to produce sensible heat, 
there can be no loss of the essential ele- 
ments of vegetation by gaseous escape. 
If manure lies upon an impervious bot- 
tom, there can be no waste by the solu- 
ble elements passing downwards into the 
soil, and if its position is such that no 
water can flow from it, no M'aste can 
take place by any amount of saturation. 



AGRICULTURAL. 



"Zl 



While saturated with water the putre- 
factive fermentation can not proceed; 
and the offensive smell that issues from 
it is of no sort of consequence. The es- 
caping gases from fresh or saturated ma- 
nure form no part of the gaseous ele- 
ments which are the food of plants. 

The great objection to the too abun- 
dant saturation is not only the excessive 
weight to be removed, but that the pre- 
paratory fermentation, which is not ex- 
haustive, can not proceed, "\\rhen ma- 
nures are removed to the soil they are 
intended to fertilize before fermentation 
has taken place, and partially spread 
so that the heaps are too shallow for it 
to commence. There is no essential waste 
during winter, except it may be by so- 
lutions from it flowing off upon the fro- 
zen surface before they can sink into the 
soil. The rains do not materially affect 
them while the earth is thawed, as what 
they dissolve sinks into it. 

Professor Voelcker, of the Agricultural 
College of Circenster, England, and John 
Johnston, an extensive farmer of Western 
New-York, have alfnost from the anti- 
podes simultaneously announced — one 
the theory and the other the practice of 
— this principle, and its seeming antag- 
onism to the favorite sentiment has eli- 
cited great needless discussion. They 
have both asserted that there was no es- 
sential difference in the effect of manures 
carried in fall or winter to the fields to 
be fertilized, and those made under shel- 
ter or in heaps in the yard ; and in this 
they are right, when they refer to ma- 
nure uncombined with foreign sub- 
stances, and exposed to fire-fanging or 
saturation. But when they assert the 
same regarding those manures combined 
with foreign substances which they re- 
duce to a condition for pabulum, they 
are wrong. Manures removed to the 
soil from a yard saturated with water 
are not, nor ever can be, distributed 
equally over the soil. Clumps and 
pastcy masses are flung around with 
dry and saturated stalks and unrotten 



straw, which not only afford unequal 
nourishment to the soil when prepared 
by putrefaction, but actually destroy 
most of the germinating seeds in their 
vicinity by the virulence and abundance 
of their first crude solutions. Now, Mr. 
Johnston's success and Professor Voelck- 
er's truth consists in a condition being 
met which they had entirely overlooked. 
This condition I had observed twenty 
years before Professor Voelcker and Mr. 
Johnston announced the principle with 
which it is connected. During the win- 
ter the frosts and winds have disinteg- 
rated and dried these masses, until they 
admit by their pulverulent condition of 
being more thoroughly distributed over 
the soil. We then approach the annun- 
ciation of this maxim. 

Manures, to produce their best effect, 
must be thoroughly distributed over and 
through the soil. Reduced to its finest 
and most pulverulent condition, each 
small particle of manure should be divi- 
ded from its fellows by many particles 
of soil. How to do this without waste 
is the great secret, and the methods are 
various. 1st. By frequent turning. 2d. 
By composting with swamp muck, peat, 
straw, soil, and other crude materials. 
8d. By returning the water that flows 
from a heap to its surface by pumping 
and otherwise. 4th. By combining the 
dung of different animals, as the easily 
heating dung of the horse, with the cold 
and unfermenting dung of cows and 
swine. 5th. And worst and most com- 
mon of all, by allowing the dung and 
litter of the stable to decay undisturbed 
in heaps, heating and fire-fanging to 
ashes in the center, and wasting many 
times the value of that which remains. 
I do not propose here to analyze and 
compare these various methods, but 
simply to endeavor to clear away the 
mist which surrounds some simple prin- 
ciples. 

Amid all the discussion of the value of 
manures and their treatment, their crea- 
tive power of inducing the sustaining 



n 



AGRICULTURAL. 



principle of other substances, has never 
been treated of. No wonder is excited 
by the fiict that a small piece of ferment- 
ed bread placed in the center of a batch 
of dough will excite the vinous fermen- 
tation, and entirely change the chemical 
condition of the whole mass. In the 
same manner may a comparatively small 
portion of actively decomposing matter 
reduce a large bulk of inert and even 
poisonous substances to an active and 
valuable agency in fertilizing the soil. 
Many a man has laboriously hauled the 
muck of his swamp upon his field, and 
with disgust and chagrin beheld the 
death of every vegetable in its vicinity. 
The heat and active fermentation of dung 
mixed with muck would have excit- 
ed a kindred fermentation that would 
have rendered it fit food for plants. All 
other inert or slow decaying or acid 
matter would have been treated in the 
same manner. The changes they would 
undergo are not a little remarkable and 
instructive. Let us trace them for a 
moment. The dung having in the intes- 
tines of the animal undergone partial 
decomposition, is more nearly ready for 
complete putrefactive fermentation, and 
commences to heat as soon as its super- 
abundant water has been pressed out. 
The cause of the heating is twofold. 1st. 
The combustion of decay or absorbing 
oxygen. 2d. The compression or les- 
sening of bulk as the heap settles down. 
As soon as the heating commences, the 
carbon, the hydrogen, and the nitrogen 
lose their hold upon each other, and are 
free for new associations. The carbon 
unites with oxygen, and carbonic acid 
appears. The hydrogen and nitrogen 
unite, and ammonia appears, for it is 
only until rotting or decomposition takes 
place that ammonia (that much talked 
of but httle understood substance) is to 
be found. And now the game is opened, 
the mass of muck or other inert matter 
heated many degrees above blood-heat, 
is prepared by the expansion of its par- 
ticles to receive a new influence. The 



tannic acid that has preserved its liquid 
and carbonaceous character so long, 
is met by the ammoniacal gas escaping 
from the rotting dung, and neutralized 
by this potent alkali to a harmless agent. 
The muck now greedily absorbs manj'- 
times its bulk of ammoniacal vapor, and 
becomes not only a vessel for its preser- 
vation, but is itself rendered a soluble 
carbonaceous substance fitted for giving 
up its elements to living plants. Not a 
bubble of the precious nitrogenous va- 
pors, not a drop of the liquid gold of the 
compost can now escape. But the muck 
accomplishes more than its hunger and 
thirst dictates. It operates as a divider 
to separate the particles of manure, and 
render them better fitted for complete 
division and distribution in the soil. 
Now, whether one very imperfect me- 
thod of using manure is better than an- 
other very imperfect method, ought not 
to occupy the attention of any man. 
Whether John Johnston could obtain 
equal or even better results from fresh 
manure carted to his fields in winter 
than he could from it hauled from his 
barnyard half decayed in spring, or from 
the same source piled with care and fre- 
quently turned, but still so as to lose by 
that very turning a great part of its 
value, ought not to be the question ; but 
whether he might not have employed 
his fresh manure to multiply itself many 
times, to render soluble and fit food for 
plants, inert and vicious substances. Of 
the second condition of loss of value in 
manures, not much need be said. As I 
have before stated, the four great gaseous 
elements of plants — oxygen, hydrogen, 
nitrogen, and carbon — are combined in 
such proportions and relations in disor- 
ganized plants, in ripe or dry vegetables, 
and in fresh dung, and half rotted plants, 
as to be totally unfitted for food for 
green and living ones. 

Now the moment that fermentation, 
heating, or decay commences, these 
gases separate from each other, and are 
set free for new combinations. As they 



AGRICULTURAL 



•73 



occupy vastly greater bulk than before, 
they burst forth and escape, unless de- 
tained by some absorbing substance that 
would hold them until combined again. 
The carbon unites with the ox3-gen and 
combustion takes place, precisely like 
the burning of charcoal in a flame, and 
the result is the same — ashes. The 
ashes of fire from the hearth and the 
ashes of fire-fanged dung are precisely 
similar. By this fire fanging, the hy- 
drogen and nitrogen which would have 
formed ammonia, have nothing to de- 
tain them, the carbonaceous matter 
which forms their natural storehouse 
has been biu-ned up. There are but 
three methods of preserving manure 
from this species of loss : 1st. Saturation 
with water. 2d. Drying in the sun. 3d. 
Composting with considerable bulks of 
inert matter. All these are objectiona- 
ble, but the last presents the vast ad- 
vantage. That while the bulk is greatly 
increased the value is not diluted — that 
every pound of the compost is equal to 
a pound of the original. 

I am convinced, therefore, that the 
whole subject of manure might be con- 
densed into the following propositions : 

1. Manure does not waste so long as 
it is unfermented and undissolved, and 
these conditions are effected by drying 
or by saturation, by spreading too thinly 
for heating, or by heating in contact 
with absorbing substances, (opposite 
conditions and yet not different.) 

2. Fresh or unfermented excrement is 
unfit for food of plants, and requires a 
new combination of elements for which 
time and heat and moisture are requisite, 
and to which saturation and dryness are 
equally opposed. 

3. Fermenting manure in contact with 
inert matter, has the power of neutraliz- 
ing vicious properties, (as the tannic 
acid of peat and the pcroxyde of iron,) 
and of dissolving and rendering soluble 
properties that were otherwise locked up. 

4. The waste of manure is effected in 
only two ways — ^by the escape of its 



gaseous elements into the atmosphere 
when heating, and by the dissolving of 
its soluble salts in water that flows away. 
Any method that prevents these is valu- 
able. 

5. The creative or effervescing effect 
of unhurt manures is more valuable than 
the original matter, and is capable of 
multiplying its value many times. 

6. The value of any manure is in the 
ratio of its division through the soil. 
And the golden rule of farming is, 
small quantities of manure well divided 
and intermingled with the soil, will pro- 
duce better crops than large quantities 
not well divided. 



For the American Farmers' Magazine. 

EXTEACTS FROM THE JOURNAL 
OF A TENNESSEE FARMER. 

Oct. 21, 1857.— This was the first 
morning this fall that Jack Frost showed 
his white teeth. Much of the Indian 
corn is yet unripe, and I venture to pre- 
dict that if Jack's nip of the green corn 
proves as hurtful as I have known it in 
North Missouri, much complaint lies in 
store against him for this first visit to us 
on this mission. It is to be hoped that 
a sufficiency has been impervious and 
secure from his grip, for this crop almost 
failed in Eastern Tennessee last year on 
account of the continued drought. This 
year our farmers gave to its planting 
and culture unusual attention. The his- 
tory of this corn is too well known to 
command but a passing notice now, 
having been found here in cultivation by 
the Indians on the discovery of the con- 
tinent. No State wheresoever turns to 
moral account the production of this 
valuable cereal more than our beloved 
Tennessee ; very little " TangU foot'' is 
manufactured from it, but fat hogs, 
mules, horses, and cattle revel and luxu- 
riate in the bounty, whilst our farmers 
are content with the profit thus obtained. 
At one time our State stood first in the 
quantity grown, and it would, I think, 
be no exaggeration to say she grows 



74 



AGRICULTURAL 



the lest in the Union. We have nearly 
all known varieties except the new Pea- 
body kind, now so much talked of in the 
prints. It is in our border for sale, and 
will soon be compared with the white 
flint in yield, etc. The name Maiz, I 
believe more properly belongs to this 
grain to contradistinguish it from other 
corn. Will some one say what kind of 
corn it was that Joseph, governor of 
Egypt, sold to the people, and in seven 
years got aU money, lands, and cattle, 
except that owned by the priests, by its 
sale ? (It was the same cereal which 
our English brethren denominate corn, 
viz., wheat of some variety. — Ed.) 

November. — About the middle of this 
last fall month the cold weather mili- 
tates against the almanac makers, and 
one would think on being here that by 
some freak of nature we are sojourning 
in the Arctic region. The ether in the 
thermometer is 8 degrees below 0, Faren- 
heit. Our oldest people say this is an 
innovation upon their whole experience 
here. 

Decemler came in like a lamb, and up 
to this writing has passed with warm 
rains and sunshine, comparing favorably 
with April. Most of our farmers have 
gathered the greater part of their corn 
crop, and are sure enough complaining 
that Jack has damaged them. Some say 
one-half their corn is unfit for keeping 
uses, but must be fed away to stock 
forthwith. I went through my fields 
the 14th. I found on many stalks ears 
of corn that had dry, white mould on the 
stalk. That in the crib looks as yet 
good. I am confident my corn was as 
ripe as most of my neighbors when the 
frost came, and I am satisfied it is much 
injured by this. I premise a general 
loss of this grain in our district by early 
frost. My experience in growing this 
grain in Tennessee is, that if the grounds 
be well plowed in winter, cross plowed 
in the spring, planted about the first 
week in April, with good seed, thinned 
early and well cultivated after, no fears 



need be had of early frosts ; but except 
the main features here named appear 
with our farmers, we well may always 
dread early frosts and freezes. 

Dec. 18. — I had neglected in the proper 
place to name anything of my success in 
raising sorgum, or in making syrup from 
the Chinese sugar cane. The seed was 
sent me from the patent office last year 
by a friend. It was planted in good, 
rich soil. My health was too poor to 
superintend it, though it was cultivated 
as broom corn, the cultivation of which 
I think is fully understood here. When 
the seed had become of a dark brown 
the stalks were cut. We had no machine 
to express the juice. It was beat with 
pestles and put in an apple cider press, 
a very common one. The juice was 
boiled in a copper kettle to a good gold- 
en yellow syrup, equal, I think, in taste, 
to any we get in this country except the 
maple, which, I think, stands ahead of 
all syrups I know of. I have no doubt 
that if our farmers will pay a little atten- 
tion to its cultivation, and manufacture 
into molasses, it will prove to be a short- 
ening of expense in this article. Wheth- 
er it can be made in such quantities as 
to compete in sale with other southern 
countries remains, I think, for the fu- 
ture. A great mania prevails for the 
seed. It is being very generally distri- 
buted in small parcels, and another year 
may give more reliable facts than this 
one has aiforded in relation to the new . 
article. So far as we tried it I do not 
think any sugar can be made of the 
syrup. A. L. B. 

Mill Bend, Tenn., Dec. 1857. 



For the Farmers' Magazine. 

PROCESS OF SAVING CORN, &c. 

The old year is at its close. With us 
the Christmas week has been one of joy 
and mirth with the lads and lasses of our 
community. Everywhere in our favor- 
ed Valley plenty abounds, and notwith- 
standing the monetary crisis which has 
passed over the land, there is, compara- 



AGRICULTURAL 



75 



tively speaking, little or no real want in 
our community. The crops of the past 
season, if not abundant, have been am- 
ple, and there is some surplus for mar- 
ket. The corn crop was very fine, but 
owing to the early and severe frosts of 
November, and the warm, rainy, and 
damp weather that followed, much of the 
crop has been seriously injured, amount- 
ing to one-third, and in some places one- 
half the crop. Many of my neighbors 
have been under the necessity of remov- 
ing the corn from cribbing too early, and 
have suffered loss. Where corn was cut 
up and well shocked, it has not been 
much injured, particularly where cut be- 
fore the heavy frosts. 

The process of saving corn has been 
so often commented on, that it would 
appear almost unnecessary for me to say 
anything on the subject. Yet, as I have 
saved my corn sound this year, I will 
give you my method, and if it is worth 
anything, make use of it. 

I usually begin cutting as soon as the 
corn is glazed. This, with us, is usually 
about the 20th of September, this year 
the first week in Oct. When the crop 
is good, say 50 or 60 bushels per acre, 
I put 13 rows, to the row of shocks, cut- 
ting as near the ground as I can, so as 
to give the whole nutriment of the stock 
to the maturity of the grain. 

We commence on one side of the field, 
a stout hand taking the lead, and form- 
ing the shocks by bending four or more 
stout stalks together, making half shocks 
or six rows, well set up, and secured by 
a good band of fodder, grass or straw. 
After going over the field in this way, 
let it cure two or three days, or more if 
necessary, and then complete the shocks 
by bringing the six additional rows, with 
a good band about the ears, and another 
at the top. If the shocks are well put 
up and banded they will stand all win- 
ter without injury. I have half my 
crop yet in the field, in excellent preser- 
vation, and shall only get it in as my 
cattle need provender. 



The two past winters should admonish 
farmers to have better accommodations 
for their stock. There is much gain 
every way from having good shelter for 
cattle and stock of every kind. Less 
feed suffices, and what you give thein 
they get the benefit of. The merciful 
man is ever merciful to his beast. The 
man who can hear his cattle and sheep 
bleating, his pigs squaling, and see his 
horses shivering in the fence corners, 
while he makes no efforts for their com- 
fort, must be calous to the finer feelings 
of our nature. (It is so. — Ed.) 

We often hear persons complaining 
about bad luck, but if you trace the mat- 
ter, it is bad management. The careful 
manager, who has a place for everything, 
and keeps everything in its place, who 
divides his stock in such a way as to 
prevent the feeble from being run over 
by the strong, or driven from their feed, 
does not often suffer loss in this way. 
Good feed and careful attention, will 
generally keep man and beast in good 
health and condition. (Yes. — Ed.) 

One cow well fed, is worth two or 
three poorly cared for. Keep good 
stock, feed well, and my word for it, you 
will find a proper return. (How slow 
the world is to find this out. — Ed.) 

On Christmas day we had quite a snow 
storm, with wind from the east ; since 
then the weather has been mild, with 
rain every alternate day. The snow is 
gone, and this day is wet, with deep 
mud everywhere. Where the land is 
good, wheat looks well, but to some ex- 
tent it is an uncertain crop. 

The crop of oats last season was fine, 
but owing to the scarcity of corn, much 
of it has been fed. The hay harvest was 
very good. Of potatoes about the usual 
crop. Apples scarce. Pork rather 
scarce and high, $7 being about the 
average price. Beef is not abundant, 
and is worth from $6 50 to $7, and will 
be very scarce before Spring, as the 
usual stock is not on hand. South 
Western Virginia produces very fine 



76 



AGRICULTURAL. 



cattle, but the supply from that quarter 
is less than usual. The graziers suffered 
much in their cattle last winter, from 
cold and short supply of provender. 

I have written this letter rather hasti- 
ly, correct errors if you give it a place 
in your valuable journal. 

Wishing you the compliments of the 
season, I subscribe myself. 

Your obedient servant, 

Henry B. Jones. 

Near Brownsburg, Dec. 30, 1857. 

The above remarks about shelter for 
cattle, implying humanity to brutes, (?) 
as well as profit to the owner, are quite 
to our mind, and we thinTc and feel that 
they can hardly be too often repeated. 
Would not shelter for the food of cattle 
be well also? We ask this question 
without answering. It has been our lot 
to know little of so delicious a climate as 
the above writer may enjoy. In these 
boreal regions it is good policy to shelter 
our fodder as well as our cattle, and we 
can not but doubt whether the same 
would not be good policy for the greater 
corn growers and stock breeders of the 
West, the South-West, and even the 
South. But the farmers in these regions 
know perhaps of reasons for a contrary 
course, which we may not fully appre- 
ciate — Ed. 



SNOW AND VEGETABLE LIFE. 

BY A FRIEND. 

In mundane affairs no one finds an ex- 
cuse or an apology for ingratitude. A 
man may commit crime after crime 
against both life and property, but rare 
indeed is the instance, however henious 
the offence, in which the criminal does 
not find some people ready to palliate it 
or to extenuate its guilt. But nobody 
forgives ingratitude, even when not the 
object of it. 

Why is it that we do not apply this 
to holier things ? Why do so many peo- 
ple who profess to live, and who we be- 
lieve mean to live a Christian life, par- 
ticipate, day by day and year by year, in 



so many blessings, heedless at all events, 
if not ungrateful for them ? Why ? For 
two principal reasons. Because being 
blessings enjoyed in common with all 
their fellow-men, they are regarded as 
" things of course." And because they 
do not tMnk. 

It may be thought a cold subject with 
which to stir up the heart. Yet, not- 
withstanding that, the winter's fall of 
snow should be, with every farmer es- 
pecially, a cause of thankfulness and gra- 
titude to our gracious Father in heaven. 
Yet so common is snow, and moreover, 
sometimes so unpleasant to our personal 
feelings and convenience, that it is to be 
feared it too often engenders grumblings 
rather than thankfulness. 

Let us see why it is that we have cause 
for this gratitude ; and, perhaps, the con- 
sideration may engender the feeling. 

In the first place the snow protects the 
ground from the intense severity of frost, 
and thereby preserves vitality in the 
roots of may trees, and in the seeds that 
the ripening of the autumnal crops' have 
sown in the ground ; and many of which 
but for such protection would be de- 
stroyed. 

That this is so has been proved by nu- 
merous experiments. It has been found 
that the temperature of the surface of 
the ground, beneath six inches of snow, 
was nineteen degrees of Fahrenheit's 
thermometer less severe than the tem- 
perature of the atmosphere at the time of 
the experiment. And as snow is a bad 
conductor of heat, there is little doubt 
that the surface would not have cooled 
more, even if the temperature of the at- 
mosphere had fallen several degrees still 
lower. 

The preservation of seeds by the com- 
bined action of snow and frost is very 
remarkable. Although the temperature 
of the winters in New- York State is much 
more severe than in England, there are 
many seeds of flowering and other plants 
that are of a tender nature, which are 
here preserved perfectly through the 



AGRICULTURAL. 



11 



winter, being self sown in the summer 
and fall, and which in the following 
spring make their appearance in the 
garden. In England the same seeds in- 
variably perish. The balsam is one flow- 
er of that description. The reason is 
this. In England there is usually in 
mid-winter a temporary breaking up of 
frost for a few daj-s, which is followed by 
a short season of severe frost again. 
During the thaw the genial warmth 
causes the tender seeds alluded to to ger- 
minate ; but the return of frost arrests the 
process, which in a seed can never be re- 
newed, and it dies. 

Again, although many evergreen trees 
can endure a great amount of cold with- 
out destruction, their leaves require Ugh t 
at all times*; otherwise the vital princi- 
ple in the leaf could not be sustained. 
Now snow being white and opaque, the 
quantity that falls on a tree does not pre- 
clude the light from penetrating through 
it, and, consequently the functions of the 
leaf can progress, notwithstanding its 
winter covering, which at the same time 
protects it also from the intensity of the 
frost. 

Independently of the foregoing bene- 
fits derived fi-ora the presence of snow, 
there is another of equal value, which is 
not probably so apparent to the casual 
observer. The effect of frost upon the 
organization of vegetables is principally 
injurious bj"- rupturing and tearing apart 
the vessels forming their structure. This 
arises chiefly from the contraction of the 
water or sap whilst freezing within them. 
The tissue fomicd by these vessels is it- 
self elastic ; but to a greater or less de- 
gree in different families of plants. Now 
when frost is not severe, the clastic force 
enables the internal structure of the plant 
to conform to the altered position of the 
vessels forming the tissues — to some ex- 
tent at least — and it is only when the 
severity of the frost is sufficient to ex- 
iiaust this clastic power, that the organi- 
zation of plants is destroyed, by these 
results of the freezing process. 



But if the preceding paragraph is un- 
derstood, the reader M-ill perceive that it 
follows as of course, that the plant is li- 
able to injury by the process of thawing 
as well as that of freezing. And such is 
the fact ; for those who have investigated 
the subject have arrived at the conclu- 
sion that more plants arc killed by the 
thaw than by the preceding frost. Be- 
cause usually the thaw is much more 
rapid than the freezing process. Hence 
there is more time for the elastic force to 
be gradually brought into play through 
the whole fabric of the plant in the latter 
case. 

We all know the effect of a hot win- 
ter's sun for a couple of hours at mid- 
day upon a frozen tree. And now the 
friendly snow comes into play. The white 
mantle guards the covered limbs from 
the direct action of the sun's rays, which 
first have to melt into water the snow on 
the branches, thus they become bathed 
with water of a temperature just below 
freezing point. It follows that the frost 
is thereby removed gradually from the 
tree, and frequently that saves from 
death many a plant that would have suc- 
cumbed to the disruption of its tissues 
that the action of a hot sun on its frozen 
limbs, had they beeu uncovered, would 
have occasioned. 

Many years ago the writer of these 
remarks, had accidcntly exposed a dozen 
or more succulent geranium plants to a 
severe frost, which so completely pene- 
trated through them as to give their stems 
as well as leaves the transparent appear- 
ance of sugar candy. Knowing the above 
mentioned facts, he determined to see if 
it was possible to thaw one of them with- 
out the destruction of vegetable life. lie 
therefore placed the plant with its whole 
head inverted in a vessel of ice-cold wa- 
ter, by supporting the flower-pot con- 
taining the frozen plant on sticks placed 
accross the top of the vessel, which was 
then put in a dark cellar, the tempera- 
ture of which at the time was only three 
or four degrees above freezing point. In 



78 



AGRICULTURAL 



this position the plant was left for two 
or three days, at the end of which time 
(but not before) the leaves and stalk by 
their change to their natural color, show- 
ed that the frost was all out of them. 
This plant lived. It is needless to say 
that the other geraniums were all killed 
before night of the day on which the ex- 
periment commenced, for the first rays 
of the sun disposed of them in an hour ! 

From the foregoing remarks it will be 
seen that vegetation is preserved by snow 
in a two-fold manner. The one, by pre- 
serving the vital principle from the effects 
of extreme cold ; the other by preventing 
the destruction of the organization, by 
reason of its disruption by intense frost. 

Are not these blessings ? Truly of so 
great extent, that the sustenance of ani- 
mal life, on large districts of the earth, 
may he — for ought we know — dependent 
on their presence. How grateful should 
we be then for them! 

How many people live? How few 
amongst them think ? 



A CORRECTION. 

Gentlemen : — In the Farmers' Maga- 
zine for January, just come to hand, it 
is stated, page 28, " The veteran editor of 
the Massachusetts' Plowman still affirms 
that his favorite Alderney cow, gives 
milk, four quarts of which will make a 
pound of butter." This is a mistake. 
He affirms in relation to his Devon stock, 
and not Alderney. We do not know 
that he ever had any of the Alderney or 
Jersey stock. We have seen his Devons 
— and they are very fine — though we 
were never satisfied that their butter- 
producing qualities were equal to his re- 
presentations. We do not believe that 
any cow can be found, or ever has been 
found, that will yield a pound of butter 
to each and every four quarts of her 
milk. It is a good cow that will yield a 
pound of butter to double tids quantity, 
through the season. On this point we 
speak with confidence, because we have 
examined it. We have said the same 
thing to the veteran editor named, who 



is but a few years older than ourselves, 
and who has boasted much of his stock, 
still we doubt whether he has seen more 
or better butter producing cows than we 
have. *^* 

January 9 th, 1858. 

We stand corrected. A Devon not an 
Alderney cow, is the mother of a pound 
of butter to four quarts of milk, and we 
knew it, and can not account for the 
blunder, but are glad to be put right. 

Some cows, we all know, are remark- 
able for the quantity, and others for the 
quality of their milk. We believe it 
possible that a cow, giving naturally a 
very little and very rich milk, may be so 
fed and watered as to give still less and 
still richer ; and if the editor of the 
Ploicman says that four quarts of a par- 
ticular cow's milk have made a pound of 
butter, we will not dispute him, for we 
believe him to be a truthful man ; but if 
it was so, then that cow's milk, owing to 
some extraordinary characteristic in the 
animal, or to some peculiarity in the 
manner of feeding, or to a selection of 
the strippings instead of taking the whole, 
was about three times as oily as the 
avarage of cow's milk. It must have con- 
tained at least 10 per cent, of oil, instead 
of about four, as is usual. 

The gentleman, who has kindly cor- 
rected our mistake, is, we believe, an ad- 
mirer of the old red cattle of New-Eng- 
land. He knows, as we do, that the 
breeding has been bad ; that the best 
calves have gone to the butcher ; that 
males have been kept more for the pur- 
pose of rendering the cows fit for the 
dairy, than any other consideration. Is 
there any other race of cattle that would 
have been as good this day, as these 
same old reds, if through a long line of 
ancestry they had been as badly bred ? 
We should like it much if that gentle- 
men would give for the Farmer's Mag- 
azine some account of these cattle, their 
history, their abuses and their excellent 
qualities after all. If we are not mistak- 



AGRICULTURAL. 



Id 



en, he ranks them high ; thinks it would 
be wise to breed from them, instead of 
relying on importations ; and that by a 
rational procedure they can be made 
the foundation for a better stock than 
the world yet affords, at least for our 
Northern States. We suspect he may be 
right, and should Uke to have his reasons, 
though we have supposed that the coun- 
try owes much to the importers of fine 
cattle, and that both importation and 
careful breeding from the best samples of 
our acclimated stock should go on par- 
allel, in order to reach the best results in 
the shortest time, for the whole country, 
and for every part of it. — Ed. 



A THEORY SPOLIED ; OR ARE 

SOUTH-DOWNS PURE BLOOD- 

■ ED SHEEP. 

BY C. M. CLAY, ESQ., OF KENTUCKY. 

Mr. Editor : — After all the accumulat- 
ed science of ages applied to the pre- 
servation of health and the cure of dis- 
eases, one of the first phj^sicians and 
teachers of Paris lately said to his stu- 
dents, very naively, " What do I — what 
does anybody know about medicine ?" 
It was said of a learned traveler that he 
went from home a goslln and came back 
Vi gander ! "Common sense" is not 
universal ; learning can neither give it, 
nor take it away. Science has its fan- 
atics as well as religion and politics ; 
and in either case whenever one mounts 
his hobby, like a beggar on horseback, 
he "rides to the devil!" No wonder 
then that " book learning" is so much 
distrusted by practical men. In practi- 
cal life false theory dees not run long 
before it butts itself against some im- 
possible law of nature, and is abandoned. 
But let a book man, or a man of science 
if you please, get hold of the tail of a 
thing, and he is dragged to starvation or 
death before he will loose his hold ! 
Henry Coleman, Esq., the author of Eu- 
ropean Agriculture, tells us that pulver- 
ized granite and other insoluble sub- 
stances produced with simple water un- 



expected vegetable life ; but when they 
were all mixed together, just as we 
might suppose in nature and capable of 
the greatest results, it turned out that 
the product was less in combination 
than in individual separation. So much 
for chemical agriculture ! Still we ai'e 
no enemies of science, although we do 
not credit the report that silk has been 
produced by chemical processes without 
the aid of the worm from m\ilberry 
leaves. There is more truth than poe- 
try in that verse : 

" A little learning is a dangerous thing, 
Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian 

spring 1" 
I have been led to these reflections by 
reading an article in the patent office re- 
ports of 1851-2, ("agricultural,") by D. 
J. Browne, LL.D. In that article, page 
88, he says the South-Down sheep " is 
itself a hybrid, being a mixture of the 
hairy and wooly species." Now to this 
dictum I give in refutation theory and 
facts. Let us premise, however, that the 
learned doctor is led to this assertion no 
doubt incidentally by a theory, alias a 
hobby, which is that there are but two 
species of sheep, one having wool and 
the other Tiair exclusively, and that, 
therefore, all with mixed wool and hair 
are hybrids ! Now, upon what data is 
this broad assertion made? Upon the 
inference, according to the Baconian 
Philosophy, of facts — a classification de- 
rived from individual ties ? Not at all. 
For of the sixteen kinds of sheep (I will 
not say species) there laid down by him, 
whose wool had been subjected to micro- 
scopic analysis, none but the Saxon and 
Merino varieties, one species, had fine 
wool. Then if the doctor's logic be right, 
all the principal breeds of sheep in Eu- 
rope andAmerica are hybrids. Nay,more, 
as every sheep enumerated had some of 
the characteristics of " wool" in his pile, 
there is but one pure breed — the Merino 
— that is, one pure breed has been the 
progenitor of all the hybrids ! A reduc- 
tio ad al)surdum ! 

From analogical reasoning the doctor 



80 



AGRICULTURAL, 



is just as wide of the mark. When told 
that change of climate reduces the hair 
and increases the wool, or the reverse, 
the doctor claims this as a proof rather 
than a disproof of his theory. What is 
there in the first place in the nature of 
things why a sheep should not have hair 
and wool? Nature is wiser even than 
so-called science; and common sense 
stands by nature. Wool is, in conse- 
quence of its eliptical form, curly ; if it 
extended to the hoofs it would be con- 
tinually catching against the many ob- 
stacles which the legs of every animal 
meet in locomotion. Thus, while nature 
for our benefit allows wool on the sheep's 
back, she very generally, and sensibly I 
think, with due deference to the doctor, 
supplies hair, which is straight, on the 
legs. It is the mass of facts which make 
a rule, so also is it the mass of facts 
which in their invariaMlity and univer- 
sality constitutes " species." Now if 
the mass of known breeds of sheep have 
wool and hair mixed, or separate, on the 
same body, then by what logic does the 
doctor infer that a mixed coat of wool 
and hair constitutes of necessity without 
other data of proof hybridity — an anom- 
ily — a departure from nature's unaltera- 
ble laws ? But to return to analogy. 
There are some animals which lose their 
fur in summer and regain it in winter ; 
are they according to the doctor's rea- 
soning hybrids returning to one or the 
other original types of their progenitors ? 
Again, why may not a pure blooded 
sheep have hair and wool as well as a 
pure blooded fox or rabbit have both 
hair and fur ? They are both, in each 
case, similar elements in dissimilar 
structure. Again the learned doctor 
makes a long argument to prove the 
trite and well admitted fact, that hybrids 
soon return to one or the other original 
types, or run out. Here then is the 
South-Down, traced in its characteristics 
to the times of William the Conqueror, 
the oldest authentic breed known, not 
excepting the Merino — the most thrifty 



and the most prolific — then by all the 
highest proofs as adduced by the doctor 
himself, 7iot a hybrid, but a pure race. 

Again the doctor quotes authority 
which he approves, that species do pro- 
duce or may produce varieties, by which 
he attempts to account for the difference 
between the Saxony and the Merino, 
French and Spanish, which he claims 
are pure bloods of the same species. 
Now no man living who did not have it 
told him that the Saxon, and the Span- 
ish, and French Merino were the same, 
would ever suppose that they were of 
the same species. If then the Pure 
Blooded Sheep, the Merino, has changed 
its type in weight, in size, in quality 
and quantity of wool and of grease, in 
hardiness, and in pr-olificness ; then fol- 
lowing the law of hybi'ids thus far, it is 
not a hybrid — a fortiori — how much the 
more is the South-Down which eminent- 
ly preserves its characteristics in all 
countries and ages, not a hybrid, but a 
pure blooded species and race. 

Another of the doctor's broad asser- 
tions is, that ioool is the thing to be 
raised from sheep, and that wool only, 
and not mutton, must be always looked 
to, that mutton will follow as a conse- 
quence. The doctor does not conde- 
scend, however, to tell us lovers of mut- 
ton how! This is "pulling the wool 
over our eyes" with a vengeance. 

Now it is too well known to require 
authority to support my assertion, that 
England, the greatest sheep-raising 
country in the world, having certainly 
the most intelligent agriculturists as a 
mass now existing, just reverses Dr. 
Browne's dictum. They have ceased to 
raise sheep for the icool, and look alto- 
gether of primarily to the mutton. The 
Merino and the Saxon have become 
almost extinct in England. The con- 
test seems to be solely between the large, 
coarse wools, the Leicesters, the Bake- 
weUs, and the new Oxfordshires, and the 
smaller but superior flavored South- 
Downs. In what sense then docs Dr. 



AGRICULTURAL 



81 



Browne mean to impose this new idea 
upon us ? Does he mean to say that 
"the finer the wool the finer the mut- 
ton," is a true maxim, and that no ex- 
ceptional circumstances and characteris- 
tics are to be taken into account ? Then 
is all Europe at fault in their taste ; for 
all agree that the small, coarse wooled 
sheep of Wales and the Highlands of 
Scotland are the finest flavored mutton 
in the world. Whoever heard of the 
Merino being superior mutton in quality 
or quantity ? We of Kentucky, (north- 
west of the doctor's ideal line of separa- 
tion between the " hairy" and " wooly" 
sheep, (about which I shall say a word 
presently,) have tried the Merino, giving 
thousands of dollars for a single sheep, 
breaking men of large fortunes, and 
found him poor in flesli, and making us 
poorer in pocket. The Merino is a mean, 
ragged, diminutive, unthrifty carcase, 
but when got fat, tolerable mutton, with 
the fat and lean too much separated. 
The Saxony is no better. The French 
Merino has not been tried here, I believe, 
but he is " some more of the same sort." 
In the Lexington and Louisville mar- 
kets a South-down wether will bring 
from ten to twelve dollars dressed. A 
Merino would not bring much over "nine 
shillings" wool and all, and yet this 
learned doctor talks to us of wool, and 
about sheep-o-thermal lines. 

The doctor's sheep line is, beginning 
at the south-eastern boundary of New- 
Hampshire, and running " diagonally," 
pursuing pretty much the line of tide 
water, and ending in Texas ; that north- 
west of that the " wooly^^ sheep must be 
bred; and south-east the ^* hairy ''^ 
.sheep ; if kept pure, they will do well ; 
if not, they will prosper on neither side. 
Let us see, it must be the sea air wliich 
is to cause this seemingly artificial line. 
Now the doctor's Saxony and Merino 
are from and natives of Spain, a penin- 
sular — the most peninsular of all Europe. 
At the world's fair in London thirty-two 
governments were represented as con- 



testants for the prize for the finest wool ; 
and yet that honor was borne off by 
Marke R. Cockereli, of Tennessee, U, S., 
south-east of Dr. Browne's sheep-o-ther- 
mal line. Let us leave science then 
and come down to practical ^^ common 
sense,''' Dicta 1. Where wool is more 
valuable and more accessible to market 
than mutton, raise wool. 2. Where fine 
wool is more in demand and at a higher 
price than coarse, {'jT " hair,") raise fine 
wool ; and the reverse. 3. In conse- 
quence of the modern facilities of trans- 
portation, the wools of all countries must 
of necessity be competitors in the same 
market ; therefore, the rich lands and 
the poor lands are equalized to a certain 
extent ; and therefore rich valuable lands 
must cease to raise wool, either coarse 
or Jine, as a primary source of revenue. 
4. As mutton is perishable, and there- 
fore not capable of distant transporta- 
tion, it may have a local monopoly of 
market, and consequently may command 
extraordinarily high prices. 5. As 
mutton is not only a necessity, but a 
luxurj^, good mutton, like South-down, 
wiU "pay better" than any sheep raised 
for wool. Witness the sales in Lexing- 
ton and Louisville, and the recent im- 
portations of saddles of South-downs 
from England into the New-York market 
for the dinner parties of the wealthy. 
6. As the demand for wool is substituted 
in a great measure by the culture of flax, 
silk, and cotton, its consumption by the 
human race must be retarded, whilst 
mutton, becoming more and more a ne- 
cessity and a luxury, as the most 
healthy and the most palatable of butch- 
er's meats, must become more and more 
in demand, and of consequence "pay" 
more and more. 

Now, Mr. Editor, I am a breeder of 
" South-down sheep," especially tenaci- 
ous of the idea of "purity of blood" in 
all animals, biped and quadruped. Mr. 
Browne, in riding his hobby of " pure" 
breeds, rode on to my hobby of " South- 
downs." I give him congratulation for 



82 



AGRICULTURAL 



his demolition of that miserable Tium- 
hug, ^^ improved crossed breeds'''' on one 
side, and that equally false theory of 
" in-and-in-'breeding" on the other side. 
But he has by too much learning al- 
lowed himself to be " mystified," and 
become one of that ancient but still ex- 
istent sect, "the blind leading the blind." 
I beg you will be careful how you let 
my name transpire, lest I should be ex- 
posed as intruding still more and more 
upon the doctor's domain, and have some 
learned corporation bestowing the title of 
LL.D. upon me. 



For the Farmers' Magazine, 

CORN IN NEW-HAMPSHIRE. 

BY D. L. HARVEY, EPPING, N. H. 

Mr. Editor : — With your permission, 
I will here make a statement of some im- 
provement I have made on a piece of land 
the past year, and also the amount of a 
crop of corn grown on the same, thinking 
it perhaps would be interesting to some 
of your readers. I will endeavor to be 
as brief as possible. 

Land one himdred and fifty rods. In 
1849 the farm came into my possession. 
This piece formerly had been in a field, 
but had become exhausted and turned to 
pastiu"e for some years ; how many I do 
not know. In 1850 it was plowed in 
the spring and planted with potatoes 
without manure. The yield was small, 
not more than paying for the labor. The 
next year it was sown with barley vrith 
no better success. At the same time clover 
seed was sown, which set very well. The 
next year it was turned to pasture 
again. 

In the fall of 1856 I thought of mak- 
ing another attempt to improve it by a 
fall plowing, and see what effect it 
would have on the soil or the crop. In 
November I applied twenty loads of com- 
post, (a cart of forty bushels,) and im- 
mediately plowed it in with a side hill 
plow five inches deep. The middle of 
May last it was well harrowed, and the 
23d planted with corn, five kernels in a 



hill, rows 3 ft. 6 in., hills 2 ft. 6 in. as- 
sunder. As soon as it was up I applied 
two bushels plaster to the corn. The 
cultivator was run through three times, 
and it was hoed twice. The middle of 
September the stalks were topped and 
well cured. It was harvested the 20th 
of October. The corn at harvest was as 
dry as corn usually is, dryer than most 
corn in our vicinity this year. 

I have endeavored here to ascertain 
the difference between the harvest mea- 
sure of corn and the actual dry or mark- 
et measure. 

I had ninety baskets of good corn, 
weighing 57 lbs. each, making 5,130 lbs., 
allowing 70 lbs. to the bushel, making 73 
bush, and 2 lbs, I placed one basket on 
the 20th of October, spread thin, in a 
warm chamber to dry. The 12th of 
December I weighed again to see what 
the shrinkage was ; whole weight Dec. 
12th. 4,005 lbs. A basket was shelled, 
and made by measure 56 bushels and 1 
peck of shelled corn. The corn was 
weighed and made 58 bush, and 37 lbs., 
allowing 56 lbs. to the bushel according 
to the statute of N. H. Weight of cob 
81bs. to the basket, making 720 lbs. of 
cob and 3,285 lbs. of corn, 

I make up the account by weight 
thus: 

Fifty-eight bushels of corn, . $58 00 
Top stalks and buts equal to 

two tons of Hay, ... 18 00 
Half-bushel beans and 1 load 

pumpkins, 2 00 

Eight baskets small corn, . . 2 00 



$80 00 
Whole expense of cultivation, 

interest, &c., .... 31 39 

Balance, $48 61 

I have charged nothing for the manure 
in the yard, but the labor of drawing 
and spreading, and claim no better rent 
on the land, which now appears equal to 
fifty per cent. It will be sown to wheat 
and clover in the spring without man- 
ure. I have charged one doUar per day 
for labor, board included. 



AGRICULTURAL. 



8S 



But some of your readers may wish to 
know the situation of the land. It lay.s 
on a northerly slope of a red oak hill, 
exposed to the north and west. When 
plowed in 1850 it was quite light col- 
ored, a mellow loam. In 1856 it had 
become a good deal darker, and quite 
mellow. It contains a few round stones, 
or boulders, and is underlayed with a 
kind of rotton stone or ledge, that, when 
detached with the plow, readily decom- 
poses by the frost, rain and air. 

The last winter it was blown clear 
from snow and exposed to the severe 
frosts of winter. I have no doubt but 
the frost penetrated to the depth of three 
feet, breaking the soil, which, in part, I 
think accounts for the change in the soil 
and crop. 

We like just such particular, yet brief 
statements as the above. Our Western 
and Southern friends will pity,perchance, 
our small way of farming in these North- 
ern regions, when we talk about a single 
acre, but never mind, we have some 
good things which they have not, and 
we are bound to go a-head, and improve 
upon such advantages as we have. 

Our correspondent, we think, should 
have charged his compost to that field, 
at its fair value. It must have cost him 
labor, if nothing more, previously to its 
removal ; and we do not like any calcu- 
lation which seems to imply that form 
labor — all of it — is not to be paid for. 

" Where there's a will there's a way," 
is as true of the farmer as of the mer- 
chant or the mechanic. Charge to the 
farm what you do on it, and if you read, 
think and improve, you will make it 
pay. 

We can not endure the thought that 
farming should be regarded as an unpaid 
drudgery. It must pay, and pay a pro- 
fit too, if you icork it right, and that, 
although your produce .should not always 
be so high that none but the rich can 
afibrd to use it freely. — Ed. 



NEW OXFORDSHIRE SHEEP. 

By John M. Larmoutd, in the Wool Growers' Ilf- 
porter. 

Messrs. Editors : — Among the great 
advantages of the agricultural press to 
the farmer, is the rapidity with which it 
informs him of improvements or discov- 
eries in his profession. The introduc- 
tion of an improvement, formerly the 
work of a life, is now made known in a 
week, all over the land, by the omni- 
presence of printing. Then, the thought- 
ful farmer groped his way slowly by the 
light of his experience ; now, the agri- 
cultural press brings to his aid the ex- 
perience of millions of other minds ; 
knowledge runs, and improvements, vi- 
tal to the farmer's success, formerly re- 
stricted and hindered in their progress, 
now become the common property of the 
mass. The best modes of culture, the 
most recently improved implements, and 
the most profitable farm stock, are thus 
brought at once within the reach of the 
farmer ; his best apology for thriftless- 
ness is taken away, and his ignorance of 
his art shown to be no longer a misfor- 
tune, but fault. It is true that the good 
seed of agricultural ti'uth, sown broad- 
cast by the press, falls, like the blessing 
of heaven, upon the evil as well as on 
the good. Some falls on the frivolous and 
unthinking mind, too shallow for its sus- 
tenance, and it is withered. Some falls 
on the very hard and stony ground of 
fogyism, from which it bounds off and 
is lost ; and yet some, very much, falls 
on the more congenial soil of honest, ac- 
tive minds, where, carefully pondered 
and judiciously applied to the business 
of life, it brings forth the appropriate 
fruits of agricultural prosperity. Many 
farmers owe their success, and some 
their fortunes, to some useful informa- 
tion, some valuable suggestions or happy 
thoughts from their agricultural paper. 
The grateful acknowledgment of such 
obligations on the part of the farmer, 
would be but simple justice to those who. 
in editorial labor, devote their lives to 
the advancement of his interests. I am 
myself under frequent obligation to your 
Gultkator, which I think, for fullness of 
information, reliability, and cheapness, 
unsurpassed. I often make it my guide, 
and it has never misled me. Rut my 
principal object in writing at present is 
to report to you the result of an experi- 
ment into which I was led by the Culti- 
vator. 

The raising of fine wool has long been. 



84 



AGRICULTUEAL 



here, unprofitable, and while considering 
what stock I would substitute, I noticed 
occasional articles in the Cultivator from 
those who had recently purchased the 
sheep called the New Oxfordshire, des- 
cribing them as just the variety I wanted, 
I had never seen them, but relying on 
the representations of them, at last de- 
termined to venture on a small purchase, 
and ordered from John T, Andrew, Esq., 
of West Cornwall, Ct., a pair of New 
Oxfordshire lambs. In due time they 
reached me in good order, and gave me 
an agreeable surprise. My highest ex- 
pectations were more than realized. I 
had seen beautiful animals at our fairs, 
and noticed the sheep particularly, but 
had never seen anything approaching the 
appearance of these beautiful animals. 
They were only seven months old, and 
weighed two hundred and fifty-five 
pounds. They had great square forms, 
short limbs set wide apart, long, white, 
silky wool, small bones, fine little heads, 
large prominent eyes, and most intelli- 
gent countenances. They were perfect- 
ly gentle, would not roam, and loved to 
be petted. With ordinary care they grew 
rapidly through the winter, and on the 
11th of April the ewe lamb, not then a 
year old, surprised me with a fine male 
lamb. 

About the first of June my two lambs 
were shorn, and yielded twenty-one 
pounds of clean and beautiful wool, about 
a foot long, a specimen of which I send 
enclosed. At the shearing, my buck, a 
year old, weighed 168 pounds. The in- 
fant lamb, eight weeks old, weighed 48 
pounds. 

On the 21st of August they were 
weighed again. The yearling buck 
weighed 190 pounds, the nursing year- 
ling ewe weighed 130 pounds, and their 
baby, four months and nine days old, 
weighed 100 pounds. 

In the month of September I was 
obliged to shut them up at night on ac- 
count of dogs, and they lost weight, — 
the buck 20 lbs., and the lamb 10 lbs., — 
While attending the fairs they gained 
nothing. They now have their liberty, 
and are gaining finally. On the last of 
October last, they weighed, notwithstand- 
ing their confinement, the yearling buck 
190 lbs., the ewe 160 lbs., and the little 
one 125 lbs. 

I exhibited my lambs at our County 
fair, and also at the fair of Jefferson 
county. They took prizes at both. — 
They have a great many visitors, who 



pronounce them the finest they ever saw. 
I am fully satisfied with them, and intend 
to procure an addition to my Hock. They 
are so large, hardy, prolific, and as ob- 
jects of taste, so ornamental, that they 
must prove profitable. 



From the New-England Farmer. 

HAY CAPS. 

We have used hay caps for several 
years, and have no more doubt about the 
economy of such use than we have about 
the economy of cutting the grass after it 
is grown, or of cocking it after it is cut. 
The abuse which has been heaped upon 
the use of hay caps is like that bestow- . 
ed upon keeping manure under cover, or 
of gradual deep plowing, and springs 
from those miserable prejudices which 
some cling to as to life itself Some of 
these persons stoutly aver that a piece of 
cotton cloth is no sort of protection to 
hay, that it will become wet through in 
a few moments, and yet they may be 
seen plodding about with an old cotton 
umbrella over them for hours together, 
with their heads as innocent of rain as 
they are of fairness and observation. 
There are few men but have had an oppor- 
tunity o{ seeing the effects of hay caps with 
their oion eyes, if they would but open 
them and look. A set of thirty hay caps 
will more than pay for themselves in a 
single summer such as the last was, on 
a farm where twenty tons of hay is cut. 

An excellent hay cap may be made of 
four yards of twilled cotton cloth, a yard 
wide, by sewing two breadths together, 
which will give a cap six feet square, 
and that is sufficiently large to be han- 
dled comfortably. They should be well 
hemmed, and each corner turned over 
about one inch and sewed down; into 
these twine should be tied to form loops 
for the pegs. The pegs may be made of 
white pine, and should be at least fifteen 
inches long, and whittled out smooth and 
sharp at one end. 

Such caps need no paint, and when 
placed on a cock of hay that is made up 
tall and peaked at the top, and the side 
well raked down, will almost entirely 
protect it from a rairpstorm of three 
or four days ; and we have known hay 
and grain kept quite dry with such a 
cap, when the storm had continued for 
seven days ! 

We have little sympathy with those 
who rail against the introduction of 
everything brought upon the farm that 



AGRICULTURAL. 



85 



was not there fifty years ago ; but wc 
have considerable for the animals under 
their care who arc to subsist upon their 
fodder. " I object!" seems to be as na- 
tural to some persons as the breath of 
their nostrils ; they do not stop to in- 
vestigate, but as they/eeZ like objecting, 
out it comes, " I object!" 

Well, every weed, however useless it 



may seem to us, undoubtedly has its use, 
and serves some good purpose, though 
it may be hidden from our view — and 
these objectors may stand in the same 
category — so we will try to believe that 
some valuable lesson may be drawn from 
their ohjectiovK, and exert ourselves to 
find out what it is. 



BREEDS OF CATTLE.— DEVONS 




A L D E R N 

Here is another Alderncy, sister, we 
suspect, to the one we profiled last 
month. Bating our mistake, now cor- 
rected, in ascribing the richness of a cer- 
tain cow's milk to the Alderncy blood, 
*when it belongs, for what it is worth, to 
.-mother breed, we remain in statu quo 
as to the peculiar merit and the strong 
demerits of the Alderneys ; and we re- 
produce the above simulacrum of the 
race, with the hope that our readers will 
gaze on it till fully satisfied to have no- 
thing to do ^pth them, except for the 
one-cow purpose of supplying the family 
with extraordinarily good milk at all 
times. For such as are willing to sacri- 
fice all other good qualities to that one, 
the Alderney is the very thing. Who- 
ever would commend them for any other 



E Y cow. 

quality, or would commingle their blood 
with our general stock, wc think, should 
be voted an enemy to his country. 

Below is represented a working-ox 
and a milch cow of the Devon breed. 
No matter whose they are ; for we arc 
grinding nobody's ax. Our object is to 
represent medium samples. These 
plates represent cattle thin in tlesh, and 
in general appearance f;ir inferior to 
North Devons, exhibited by Col. Capron. 
of Illinois, Mr. Osborn, of Otsego Co., 
N. Y., and many other breeders whom 
we could name. Our impression of 
them, made by what wc have seen and 
heard, both in England and this country, 
is that for any region where the forage 
and climate are but ordinarily favorable, 
these are the best cattle that have yet 



86 



AGRICULTURAL. 



been imported. A general impression 
is that they are small. Col. Capron's 
cattle, exhibited at some of the western 
shows in 1856, demonstrated that with 
perfectly pure blood, and that perfection 
of form for which most of this breed are 
I'emarkable, size can be obtained ; good 
size, large, we will say, though not as 



large, it is true, as with some other 
races. But we have yet to learn that 
the largest cattle are the best. We do 
not believe they are, except for peculiar- 
ly favored regions ; nor are we yet quite 
certain that this exception need be made 
in favor of the Durhams. 

It should be understood that our cuts 




DEVON WORKING OX. 



represent the general characteristics 
of the Devons at large. The North 
Devons, which, so far as we know, are 



much the most common in this country, 
are an improvement upon this, of finer 
m.ould, plump, clean, having all the im- 




f- 



DEVON COW, 



portant points admirably developed, 
beautiful as one could desire even were 



that the only object, and yet as hardy 
as the hardiest, and their blood so strong 



AGRICULTURAL, 



87 



i\s generally to predominate in any 
cross. 

In milking properties we believe them 
fair, at least, but, like most other breeds, 
varying greatly. The Devon cow of Mr. 
liuckminster, which we unwittingly 
characterized in our last as an Alderney, 
is undoubtedly a remarkable milker. 
We have known others inferior. Our 
impression is that they are more remark- 
able for the quality than for the quantity 
of their milk, and are, on the whole, 
medium, or a little more, as milkers. 

For the yoke nothing can exceed the 
Devons, unless it be the old red cattle of 
New-England. With these we have 
worked down many a summer's sun in 
the field; we remember them like old 
friends ; and we hardly feel like admit- 
ting that anything can beat them. 

It is enough to say that the Devons 
are like them, spry as horses, strong as 
giants, docile, always ready to do one's 
bidding. If there is anything for which 
man should be peculiarly grateful to the 
giver of all things, it is for the services 
of th§ horse, and, hardly less, for those 
of the ox. 



CURE FOR SHYING. 

If a lady's horse be addicted to shy- 
ing, I will give her a sure and simple 
cure for the same ; one which I have 
never known to fail. Let us, for in- 
stance, suppose the existence of a large 
heap of stones on the near side of the 
road. The horse sees an indistinct gray 
object, and prepares to shy at it. The 
moment he shows such symptoms, let 
his fair rider turn both her eyes on ex- 
actly the opposite side of the road, (i. e. 
the off side) and look steadily away from 
the offending heap, and I'll engage that 
the horse will walk quietly by. 

For many years I have ridden horses 
i)f all tcmpc^and dispositions, some of 
them much ^vcn to shying, and have 
never yet found this simple remedy to 
fail in its effect. Let those who scoff at 
me try it. The reason is this. The hu- 
man eye, has, doubtless, a great influence 
on all animals, and there is a strong and 
secret sympathy between the horse and 
his rider ; the horse sees an indistinct 



object and looks doubtfully at it; his 
rider becomes alarmed, imagining that 
the animal is going to commit some ec- 
centricity ; the fear is communicated to 
the animal, and he starts in terror from 
the object which has frightened him; 
whereas, if he finds that his rider sits 
unmoved and unconcernedly he regains 
his confidence, and goes on, "in the 
even tenor of his way." I believe that 
one-half of our horses are ruined for life 
by being "hit over the head" by grooms 
to cure them of shying. 



HARD TIMES— YANKEE CONTRI- 
VANCES—CHINESE SORGHUM 
—SYSTEMATIC FARMING. 

BT JOHN A. MONTQOMERT, WILLIAMSPORT, PA. 

Your January number is received, and 
although you have nearly deserted my 
business, yet I wish to see you once a 
month. Having often desired to write 
to you on various matters, I shall not 
promise to be short or long, knowing 
that when you get tired of reading you 
can stop. I had intended to give you 
an account of the lumber business of this 
section, but have not had time to collect 
reliable statistics, having been busy get- 
ting people in our debt, trying to collect, 
and fighting hard to supply our hands 
with clothing and food. The fact is the 
shops here shut up ; but as I had found 
from experience that an idle man re- 
quired food as well as one employed, I 
said to our hands that we would work 
on as long as we got food and clothing, 
and when one starved we aU would, and 
I believe none have gone hungry as yet. 
But, sir, I can almost say, that so far as 
our usual business is concerned, "our 
occupation's gone," yet you know " nc- 
cessfty is the mother of invention," and 
" we three" being Yanl'ees, and two of 
us of that miserable class called invent- 
ors, %nd seeing men's fingers doing what 
machinery should, we got up some little 
machinesi (to surprise the Dutch,) and 
they sell. 

Last spring, having no garden, I gave 
one of our hands seeds of the Chinese 
sugar cane, which he planted eight feet 



AGRICULTURAL. 



by sixteen, and by using a pair of rolls 
we happened to have in the shop, he ex- 
tracted the juice and boiled it down to a 
good, very thick sjTup, which measured 
three gallons, or at the rate of one thou- 
sand and twenty gallons per acre. This 
speaks large, but it is true, I having seen 
the syrup myself He made a little into 
tolerable sugar. 

If I live I shall the coming season 
have a garden, and intend to raise a suf- 
ficient quantity of cane to test the mat- 
ter fairly and make some sweetening. 
And I shall make this offer to others 
here : " If they will raise cane, I will 
make a three-roller mill and allow them 
to use it without charge." If "cotton 
is king," sugar shall not be, if I can help 
it. Let me suggest one thing ; having 
seen several experiments, I am led to 
conclude that the cane should not be 
planted on very rich soil, for the reason 
that when so planted it does not suflB- 
ciently mature before frost. 

Now, sir, I am going to be very pre- 
sumptuous — to differ from Mr. Manny 
on the subject of steam plowing. In the 
first place I feel satisfied a good steam 
plow can be built at a fraction of the 
cost stated by Mr. Manny. In the next 
place I believe it would pay on many of 
our Western farms, but not on the 
patchwork farms on which that curse of 
the farmer (inside fences) are made to 
cover the best land. Now I am just so 
confident in the matter, that if I live I 
will probably try it, and can say, if I 
don't succeed, it will be the first time I 
have failed in inventing, except once 
when a boy. I used to be told I could 
lift myself over the fence by my breeches. 
Perhaps I can ; I never tried. 

I have often thought I would like to 
give you a letter on "Systematic Farm- 
ing," and if possible induce farmers to 
try a plan I adopted in old l!>utchess. 
In the first place make a map of the 
farm, numbering each lot. Next in a 
small book open an account with each 
lot, and then every night charge each 



lot with the labor, seed, manure, etc., 
which has gone on the lot, and credit the 
lot with what comes off of it. Then in 
the winter figure up and see what pays 
and what does not. 

Again I would like to make a calcula- 
tion as to the cost in all points of inside 
fences, and let the farmers look at it. 

But I must stop or we will both be 
tired out. Put my thoughts where you 
please, not excepting the stove. 

That is right ; figure up the cost of 
inside fences, and show that most farm- 
ers have twice too many of them, and 
we will put it into the stove, or other 
where if it shall be adapted to enlighten 
our readers. — Ed. 



SORGHUM AND IMPHEE. 

As there has been considerable dis- 
cussion as to the relative value of the ri- 
val sugar plants, the Sorgho and the Im- 
phee, we give an extract of a letter from 
Governor Hammond, of South Carolina, 
now a Senator at Washington from that 
State, to a person in this city. Refer- 
ring to the Imphee, he says : 

. . . . " I think these seeds well 
worth distributing. They produce a su- 
gar cane at least equal to the Sorgho in 
all respects, and some of them are twice 
the size. I am inclined to think we 
shall ultimately find several of them (ri- 
pening at different periods) superceding 
the Sorgho altogether. 

" I plant this year sixty acres of the 
cane ; of these four will be planted in " 
Sorgho and the remainder iu Imphee. 
"Yours respectfully, 

"J. H. Hammond. 

"Washington, Jan. 13, 1858." 

It is quite possible that the smaller 
varieties of the Imphee may be better 
for the north, and the larger for the 
south. We incline to the opinion that 
for northern latitudes the Sorghum will 
surpass the Imphee. But we would ad- 
vise farmers to try these varieties of the 



H O'RT ICULTURAL 



89 



Imphee, of which there are some ten dif- 
ferent ones, but in such a way as to 
cause themselves no serious loss if un- 
successful. — Ed. 



DEPRECIATION. 

A FARMER in Wilmington, says the 
Vermont Phoenix^ has recently sold a 



pair of oxen, weighing about 3,740 
pounds, at four and a half cents a pound, 
ior which he was oifcrcd six i'^ Septem- 
ber. Another sold a pair for $15U, 
being fifty dollars less than the same 
cattle were estimated to be worth three 
months since. Butter has been sold in 
the same town for fifteen and a half to 
twenty cents. 



lorticultiiral 



CALENDAR FOR FEBRUARY. 

FLOWERS. 

Bulhs placed in pots and covered over 
as recommended last month, may be 
brought, some of them, every few days 
into the parlor or green-house to bloom. 
They should be kept as near the window 
as possible, if in the parlor; and the 
soil in the pots must be kept moist. As 
they advance in growth the quantity of 
water may be increased. 

The Greenhouse. — For greenhouses 
kept only just so warm as to exclude 
frost, the directions in last month's Cal- 
endar apply equally to this month also. 

Where it is wished to bring plants 
forward for early bloom, the tempera- 
ture must not be allowed to fall below 
45° or 50° Far., at night; and in the 
day the sun will raise it higher. In such 
a house flowering .shrubs may be brought 
forward for bloom : as LUars, Hoses, 
Spirwas, Weigelias, Jasmine, Forsythias, 
and many others ; Deutzia Gracilis 
among them, being one of the most desir- 
able. Syringing in the morning in sunny 
days, will tend to keep down insects in 
a warm house of this kind, and benefit 
the plants. Camellias and Azalias will 
expand their blooms also in such tempe- 
rature. Give a little air at the top of 
the house in mild days for a few hours 
only. 

Geraniums should be shifted into large 
pots to bloom. A compost of light loam 
and decayed stable manure with a little 
white sand will suit them. The old ball 
of earth should not be broken in re-pot- 



ting them; and they will not require 
much water for three weeks until the 
roots get through the new compost. 
Only keep the soil moist. As they ad- 
vance in growth tie. out the shoots to 
sticks, so as to spread the head of the 
plant, and let light and air into the 
middle. Syringe them freely, daily, to 
encourage growth and keep down green 
fly. They are best kept at a maximum 
temperature of 50* for six weeks to come. 
After that rather warmer. 

Fuchsias, towards the end of the 
month, may be treated in the same way. 
One third vegetable or leaf mould added 
to the Geranium compost will suit them. 
Treat them like the Geraniums. 

Annuals, such as Alyssum, Mignon- 
ette, Stocks, Candytuft, Sweet Peas, 
Nemophila, and many others may be 
sown in pots, to bloom in them, or to 
turn out at the breaking up of winter 
in order to forward the bloom in the 
parterre. 

KITCnEN GARDEN. 

Lettuces, Radishes, Mustard, and other 
small salad, as well as Caulifloicers, and 
early Calihages may be sown in hot-beds, 
or in cold frames, according as it is want- 
ed to have them carlj', or for succession. 

Rhubarl) or Pie-plant may be forced 
by turning a large flower pot or a half 
barrel over the crown of the root, and 
then heaping upon the bed a quantity of 
manure, fresh from the stable yard. Put 
it a foot thick or more around and over 
the barrel ; and watch after ten days 
for the crop, by raising the barrel every 



^0 



HORTICULTURAL. 



few days. It will depend on the weather 
and the quantity of manure laid on. 

Give air daily for a few hours to all 
plants in cool frames when the external 
temperature is above freezing ; and re- 
move any decayed leaves from Lettuce 
or Cabbage plants, stirring between them 
with a pointed stick to keep the surface 
soil open and to let it dry freely. 

Grape Vines should be pruned the end 
of tliis month, if they were not done in 
the fill. Do not prune them during 
severe frost ; but it is better to prune the 
Grape too early than too late in spring. 

Currants and Gooseberries should be 
pruned. Keep the center of them open. 
Have a certain number of clean branches 
according to the strength of the plant ; 
and cut in all side growths on these to 
within an inch, or rather more, of the 
branch. These will bear fruit spurs next 
year. 

Apples and Pears may be pruned as 
soon as the severest of the winter's frost 
breaks up. 



INSECTS, FLOWERS, LANDSCAPE 
GARDENING. 

In copying the following extracts from 
a very able report of a Committee of the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society, we 
are aware that we do injustice to the 
committee by severing these portions 
from others, but we do it with a view to 
present our readers with what we con- 
sider the most instructive parts. There 
is no more effective way of teaching how 
to do a thing, than to show how others 
have done it. 

Landscape gardening is a beautiful 
art. Flowers everybody should cultivate. 
They are a living presence, connecting 
man with whatever is pure and elevat- 
ing. Fruits ! who would not have them ? 
Health giving, they exhilarate but not 
intoxicate. Would that our country 
could be so full of innocent pleasures 
and harmless luxuries, as to diminish 
many fold the temptation to hurtful in- 
dulgencies. 

What a paradise of delights is such a 



home as are some of those described be- 
low ! The city is a mass of deformity 
compared with it. Those who have 
money to spend can make such homes, 
and lay the world under obligation to 
them for doing it. But what is a more 
comforting thought t6 us is, that the 
well-managed farm, with its orchard, its 
plot for vegetables and its little flower 
garden, its buildings, and enclosures all 
neat, though cultivated for profit more 
than for ornament, is nevertheless beau- 
tiful. Its flowers and fruits and tasteful 
arrangements do not render its staples 
less abundant or less valuable. They 
only add pleasure to profit. God and man 
have conspired to make the well arrang- 
ed, highly cultivated form beautiful, 
and it is beautiful. But hear what the 
committee say. 

On Tuesday, January 6th, the com- 
mittee visited the grapery of Mr. M. H. 
Simpson, in Saxonville. The weather 
was clear and cold, the thermometer 
standing at zero out of doors, and the 
change from the freezing atmosphere 
without to the genial warmth of the 
greenhouse could not fail to be agreeable, 
while the beauty and novelty of seeing 
at such an inclement season the clusters 
of ripe grapes hanging overhead, could 
scarcely fail to produce the most pleas- 
ing impressions. 

The grapery of Mr. Simpson was built 
in 1848 ; the house is span-roofed, 66 feet 
in length, with a border inside and out ; 
it is divided by a glass partition into two 
equal parts, each house containing twen- 
tj'-two vines, thus enabling Mr. Simpson 
to bring the vines into bearing at dif- 
ferent seasons. The vines grown were 
Syrian, Hamburghs, Muscats, Black 
Prince, Zinfindal, Frontignans and Mac- 
ready's Early, and in vigor and luxuriant 
growth could not well be surpassed. 
The theory of Mr. Simpson is too well- 
known to need comment, and in the opin- 
ion of the committee the experiment he 
has so fully tried has been crowned with 
the most satisfactory results and com- 
plete success. 

The time required to fully ripen grapes 
averages from four and a half to five 
months ; and thus, leaving a month for 
the full ripening of the wood, a crop 
might be matured once in every six 



HORTICULTURAL 



91 



months, ilr. Simpson's practice, how- 
ever, is to allow the vine to grow natu- 
rally without forcing every other year, 
thus preventing any exhaustion which 
might ensue from continued forcing. 

The committee can not but express 
their gratification at this visit, and trust 
that the time is not far distant when 
giapes will be as plenty in our markets, 
(luring the inclement winter months, as 
in the more sunny summer seasons. 

Our next visit was on Wednesday, 
June 28th, to the estate of II. H. Hun- 
ntiwell in West Needham. The situation 
IS unsuri)as.sed, being on the banks of 
Lake Wabaan, a beautiful sheet of water, 
which, unlike most of our New-England 
lakes, has high, bold shores, its banks 
being thus peculiarly fitted for residen- 
ces. The estate consists o£ about two 
hundred acres, most beautifully laid out 
in garden, lawn, woodland and orchard. 
The house is approached by two avenues 
on eitlier side of the lawn, each seven- 
teen feet in width ; the one bordered 
with white pines, silver maples and 
larches, the other with native deciduous 
tree, magnolias and Pinus excelsa. 

Here a pleasant surprise awaited us ; 
l)askets of magnificent grapes, mammoth 
strawberries, the famous Stanwick nec- 
tarines, peaches and figs were set before 
us, and resolving ourselves into a fruit 
committee we did ample justice to the 
merits of the fruit and to Mr. Hunne- 
well's kind and liberal hospitality. Next, 
passing some thriving specimens of the 
magnolia in front of the house, and beds 
of roses, verbenas, andjusticia, we visit- 
ed the fruit garden and greenhouses, 
marked by the same characteristic neat- 
ness. Here we found tlie choicest straw- 
berries, each variety in its separate bed ; 
l)lackbeiTie.«!, currants, raspberries, and 
pear, ajiple and plum trees, growing 
most vigorously and fruiting abundantly. 
Taking a hasty view of the greenhouses, 
from which most of the fruit had been 
cut, we passed on to a peach house just 
erected, where we found the trees looking 
finely. In one of the graperies a pecu- 
liar manner of wiring is well worthy of 
note and imitation ; the wire being fast- 
ened to one end of the house is drawn 
across to the opposite end and fastened 
to a large screw which is passed through 
the end wall ; a small nut upon this 
screw permits the wire to be loosened or 
tightened according to the expansion or 
contraction caused by heat and cold ; the 
neatness and simplicity of this ari-ange- 



ment are commendable. Stopping for a 
moment to notice some fine trees, of the 
famous Stanwick nectarine, we turned 
towards a small building on the brow of 
the hill overlooking the lake, where we 
were shown a small steam engine of six 
horse power, by means of which the corn 
is ground, wood sawed, and water pump- 
ed from the lake into large reservoirs in 
the barn, whence it is distributed by 
pipes all over the garden, so that in a diy 
season the labor of watering is compara- 
tively small. AVe were informed that in 
order to keep the place supplied with 
wood and water it was only found neces- 
sary to work the engine for a few hours 
each week; altogether this seemed the 
most perfect arrangement for saving labor 
and trouble which it had been our for- 
tune to see. Thence we turned to view 
a noticeable feature of the place, lar 
more interesting in a botanical or horti- 
cultural light ; the choice evergreens and 
deciduous trees and shrubs imported by 
Mr. Hunnewell, and which, though as yet 
young, gave promise of a vigorous fu- 
ture. 

In conclusion, the committee would 
not have it supposed that in a condensed 
report they can do justice to a place like 
Mr. Hunnewell's. What has been written 
can only show what can be accomplished 
in a short time, by care, industiy, and 
judicious expenditure of money. Six 
years ago Mr. Hunnewell's estate was a 
pitch pine forest, the soil barren, and the 
place only possessing the advantage of 
situation. By the judicious application 
of manures, and the admixture of peat 
fiom a meadow near by with the native 
sandy soil, it has been brought into its 
present fertile condition ; and Uie com- 
mittee can not refrain from expressing 
their entire satisfaction, not only with 
the means employed, but also at the re- 
sults, both apparent and perspective. 

On Wednesday, July 8th, the commit- 
tee, by invitation of Henry W. Fuller, 
Esq., Treasurer of the Board of Trus- 
tees, visited VVoodlawn Cemetery in Mai- 
den. The ground already laid out con- 
sists of about one hundred acres, pleas- 
ingly diversified by hill and dale, and 
ottering variety in wood and meadow. 

Approaching the Cemetery from Chel- 
sea we were at once struck with the 
neatness which marks the roads and 
avenues. The entrance is through a 
tasteful gateway, with porter's lodge on 
either side, and it is shaded by trees, the 
original growth of the place. Turning 



92 



HORTICULTURAL 



to the right we were pleased to observe 
the attention paid to fiowering shrubs ; 
among which we noticed deutzias, maho- 
nias, azalef\s,wegeHa, andrhodondendrons 
in great variety ; the latter seem to grow 
in the greatest luxuriance, and intermin- 
gled with Kalmia latifolia, will soon in 
many places form large masses, the effect 
of which can not fail to be most striking 
and beautiful ; and the committee can 
not but express their surprise that these 
two of our most lovely and hardy flow- 
ering shrubs, alike beautiful in foliage 
and flower, should be so rarely cultivat- 
ed and so little known. 

The trees of Woodlawn form one of 
its distinguishing features ; they are of 
every species which our woods afford, 
and those of foreign birth which our 
severe winters permit to be naturalized. 
Oaks of many kinds, walnuts, maples, 
beeches and kindred trees mingle with 
the choicer foreign deciduous trees and 
evergreens. The tupelo, one of our most 
beautiful forest trees, also abounds, and 
forms clumps of great beauty in many 
places. 

Paths and avenues of the most solid 
constru' tion have been laid out in pleas- 
ing curves, each turn affording some new 
prospect ; and what is most worthy of 
comment, the construction of all the 
walks is such, and so perfect is the sys- 
tem of drainage, that even in the most 
violent rains they wash but little, thus 
materially reducing the expense and la- 
bor of keeping them in repair. From 
many points most lovely vistas stretch 
through the wood, and small ponds with 
fountains, here and there interspersed, 
give new beauty to spots already lovely 
and attractive by nature. Kustic arches 
covered with native vines, growing with 
wild luxuriance, span the avenues ; and 
arbors embowered in trailing climbers 
penp out at convenient points. The view 
from the higher ground is extensive and 
pleasing; we see the neighboring vil- 
lages, each nestling in a canopy of wood, 
and catch not unfrequent glimpses of the 
distant ocean. 

The committee can not but feel their 
indebtedness to Mr. Fuller for the kind- 
ness and courtesy with which he treated 
them, and most fully commend the good 
taste which characterizes every part of 
the grounds. In his labors Mr. Fuller 
has an able and zealous assistant in Mr. 
Cruikshank, the superintendent, whose 
judicious labors have done much to beau- 
tify Woodlawn. 



A visit to Woodlawn can not fail to be 
satisfa<'.tory to all who love the beauty 
of nature", only so far fettered by art as 
to enable it to shine with truer loveli- 
ness ; and the growing disposition in the 
community at large to render pleasing 
and attractive the resting-place of the 
departed, while it takes little from the 
sadness of bereavement, can not fail to 
exercise a salutary influence on the pub- 
lic mind. Well pleased with their visit 
the committee left Woodlawn feeling how 
much taste may accomplish towards 
making even the sad things of nature 
shine in lovely and attractive guise. 

A pleasant ride of about an hour, on 
the morning of July 30th, brought us to 
the station at Randolph, where we found 
carriages in waiting to convey us to the 
place of C. S. Holbrook, Esq., which is 
situated in East Randolph, about two 
miles from the railroad. 

In the fruit garden the dwarf apple 
trees appeared far better than any the 
committee had seen elsewhere ; many 
of the trees being well filled with fruit. 
The gieenhouses are three in number ; 
one used as a peach house, connected 
with which is a pit for vegetables ; the 
two others being appropriated exclu- 
sively to grapes. 

The season of peaches being almost 
past, we only found two trees from 
which the fruit had not been gathered ; 
the growth of all the trees was vigorous 
and the trees healthy. The vegetable 
house or pit has, during the present sea- 
son, been used entirely for forcing cu- 
cumbers ; and though the vines were, as 
we were assured by the gardener, long 
past their prime, yet the abundant fruit 
still clinging to them gave evidence of a 
flow of sap which would h;ive done 
credit to younger vines. The two other 
graperies are each sixty feet long by 
twenty wide ; one of these is divided by 
a glass partition into two equal portions, 
in order to force the vines at different 
periods. The principal grapes grown 
are the Muscat in variety, Hamburghs, 
Frantignans, White Chesselas, and Black 
Prince ; the size of the berries was good, 
and their flavor excellent ; the vines 
were in fine condition, being free from 
disease, with a clear rich foliage. Much 
credit is due to Mr. Walsh, gar dener to 
Mr. Holbrook, for the skill and attention 
everywhere exhibited, and for the neat- 
ness and artistic merit of the flower gar- 
den, and the committee can not but 
think that were the same care bestowed 



UORTICULTURAL. 



98 



on flowers in general, gardening could 
not fail to acquire a new charm. 

Oil Tui'sday and Wednesday, August 
25tli and 20th, the Secretary, in com- 
pany with another gentleman of the 
committee, made visits to the following 
places visited by the Committee in July. 

A pleasant ride brought us to the gar- 
den of tialvin & Hogan in Somerville, 
where the growth of the trees and their 
healthy appearance gave good evidence 
of a rich and well cultivated soil. The 
flower garden was not in as fine condi- 
tion as we had been led to expect, though 
the heavy rains of the preceding fort- 
night were mainly the cause of the dis- 
order. The pears were in good bearing, 
especially the Easter Beurre, Louise 
bonne de Jersey, Bartlctt and Duchess 
d'Angouleme ; wliile a heavy crop of to- 
matoes gave evidence that, in vegetables 
Somerville is not at all behind the neigh- 
boring town.s. As a matter of course 
there was but little of interest in the 
ilower houses at this season, all the 
plants being arranged out of doors ; but 
an examintation of the camellias, ericas, 
epaciis and azaleas, was fully satisfac- 
tory, and attbrded proof of the care which 
produced such abundance of promising 
buds and rich luxuriance of foliage. 

By a walk of half an hour we reached 
the well known establishment of the 
Messrs. llovey, so often described in the 
reports of the Garden Committee The 
pears were in full beauty and afforded 
no evidence of lack of attention of care- 
ful, well-directed pruning. In the green- 
house a fine collection of achimenes and 
Bome beautiful specimens of Cissus dis- 
polor were worthy of notice ; we also 
found Psidium calleyanum in fruit, and 
were informed that from the fruit of half 
a dozen small trees a couple of boxes of 
guava jelley were manufactured last 
year. In the open border the Japan 
lilies were just bursting into bloom, and 
some fine new phloxs showed in full 
glory. 

The well known country-seat of Jona- 
than French, Esq., was next on our list; 
and we need only say that in every res- 
pect it maintains its previous reputation ; 
the greenhouse i)lants and flower garden 
were in line order, and a collection of 
new seedling verbenas worthy of espe- 
cial praise. We here saw some choice 
new petunias, fuchias, lantanas and sal- 
vias; but to u.s, with the exception of 
the Countess of Ellesmere petunia, they 
did not appear so striking as to recom- 



mend them above others longer and bet- 
ter known. Two noble Seckcl pear 
trees, loaded with fiuit, were noticeable 
objects, as the largest and finest speci- 
mens of the kind it had been the fortune 
of the committee to see. 

The following prizes and gratuities, 
among others, were awarded: 

For the best cultivated and most 
neatly kept grounds through 
the season, to 11. 11. Hunne- 
well, a prize of $20 00 

For the same, to Wm. Whiting, 

a gratuity of. 10 00 

For the most economical!}' man- 
aged, best cultivated, and most 
neatly kept fruit garden, 
through the season, to John 
Gordon, a prize of 20 00 

For the same, to Ariel Low, a 

gratuity of 10 00 

For the most economically man- 
aged, best cultivated, and most 
neatly kept flower garden, 
through the season, to C. S. 
Holbrook, a prize of 20 00 

For the same, to William Wales, 

a gratuity of 10 00 

For a well managed cemetery, in 
its keeping in accordance with 
the true principles of beau- 
ty and art, to Woodlawn Cem- 
etery, a price of 20 00 

To M. H. Simpson, for a novel 
and well conducted experiment 
in the culture of the giape, a 
gratuity of 20 00 

To F. L. Harris, gardener to II. 
H. Hunnewel), for floral gar- 
dening, the society's silver 
medal. 

To E. P. Ilollis, for a well con- 
ducted vegetable garden, the 
society's silver medal. 



HOW TO MAKE STRAWBERRY 
BEDS. 

Two points must be understood, to 
grow the best strawberries: 1st, that 
the soil must be deep, and 2d, that it 
must be rich. If you look at the leaves 
of a strawberry, and because they aro 
not very large, presume that the roots 
will extend but little depth, vou are 
greatly mistaken. I have seen the roots 
of strawl)erries extend five feet down in 
a rich, deep soil ; and those plants bore 
a crop of fruit five times as large, and 
twice as handsome and good, as tho 



94 



HORTICULTURAL. 



common product of a soil only one foot 
deep. 

And this reminds me of a capital in- 
stance of strawberry dehmon, which 
most of our readers doubtless know 
something about, but which many even 
yet, perhaps, do not fully understand I 
mean the history of the "Washington 
Alpine Strawberry," which Mr. Stod- 
dard, of Western New-York, advertised, 
and sold a great many dollars' worth of, 
some four or five years ago. Mr. Stod- 
dard, I believe, was quite honest in the 
transaction; and yet the whole public 
were completely deluded by the " Wash- 
ington Alpine," which was nothing but 
the old Alpine or Monthly Strawberry. 
The long and short of the matter was, 
that Mr. Stoddard had a corner of his 
garden which was made ground — a rich, 
deep, moist soil, (I think it had been an 
old bog, or bit of alluvial, afterwards 
filled up) not less than eight or ten feet 
deep. Mr. Stoddard had raised some 
seedling Alpine (which, so far as I know, 
always comes from the seed;) he had, 
by lucky chance, planted thera in this 
corner of his garden, where the soil was 
t so unusually rich and deep. There they 
grew so finely, and bore such enormous 
crops, that his neighbors could scarcely 
credit their senses. The story of the 
miraculous crop got into the papers. 
People came to see with their own eyes. 
In short, they bought, and carried away 
the " Washington Alpines," at extrava- 
gant prices, with the full conviction that 
"seeing is beheving," and that such 
strawberries were never before grown, 
gazed on, or tasted. Well, great was 
their surprise to find, on planting and 
cultivating the " Washington Alpines," 
that there was nothing new or wonder- 
ful about them ; and that, in fact, they 
all dwindled down to the old-fashioned 
Alpine Strawberry. Mr. S., naturally 
enough, now has as many hard names 
bestowed upon him for the fancied de- 
ception as he had before had hard dollars 
for really great crops. And yet, Mr. 
Stoddard sold his plants in good faith, 
and was probably as much deluded as 
the buyers. The whole secret of his un- 
heard of crops, and the large size of his 
fruit, lay in the depth and richness of 
his soil ; and as none of his customers 
had, like him, a rich ten feet mold to 
grow giants in, they had no " Washmg- 
ton Alpines." 

The " moral" your readers are to draw 
out of this digression is, that they can 



not well make their soil too deep for the 
strawberry. Perhaps they can not afibrd 
to make it three feet deep, which is the 
right depth for an extra fine crop ; but, 
at all events, they can make it two deep. 
And now, a word as t© manuring it. 

It is all very well to talk about com- 
posts and "well rotted manure." The 
real truth is, that in our careless country, 
not one gardener in a hundred has such 
things ready for use at the moment he 
wants to prepare his strawberry patch. 
What people have at hand, fi om one end 
of the country to the other, is fresh 
stable or barn-yard manure; and the 
question is, how to use that to the best 
advantage. 

The true way to do this, is to throw out 
the soil where your beds are to be made, 
two feet deep. Fill up the bottom eight 
inches, or a foot deep, with fresh stable 
manure, mixed with the litter, treading 
it down firmly. Then cover this with 
two-thirds of the soil thrown out, reject- 
ing the worst part of it. This will raise 
tlie bed four inches above the surface ; 
and as it will settle about four inches, it 
will be about level after it is settled. 

This is all the preparation which I 
give my soil, and it is all that any soil 
of fair quality needs ; only that I would 
much prefer to have it three feet deep, 
than two feet, and to have sixteen inches 
of stable manure and litter at the bottom 
than eight, though the latter brings 
heavy crops in a good soil. 

You may put out your plants in Au- 
gust (September in Ohio,) or April. 
The only dificrence is, that if planted in 
August, you may lose half of them by 
the heat and drouth, unless it is a rainy 
season ; while in April, you are certain 
not to lose a single plant, unless it is un- 
sound when you transplant it. 

To my mind there is no way of grow- 
ing strawberries half so complete as in 
beds three and a half feet wide, with 
three rows in each — the plants in the 
rows kept clipped of their runners, and 
the ground between the rows nicely 
covered with straw all the year round. 
The largest and finest fruit is obtained 
in this way, and the beds themselves will 
last many years ; while if they are al- 
lowed to cover the bed, you can, at the 
most, expect only two crops, and, gene- 
rally, the fruit is of little, or no value, 
after the first crop.— TAe late A. J. 
Doicning, in the Horticulturist. 

It may seem like intolerable arrogance 



HORTICULTURAL 



95 



for us to take the attitude dissent from 
so universally and justly honored au- 
thority. But though one arise from the 
dead, we could not believe in burying 
fresh stable manure two feet under 
ground, much less three feet or three 
and a half It might do on "some soils, 
but not on all. That it operated well in 
Mr. Downing's grounds, we have not the 
least doubt ; but his success was owing 
partly, it is probable, to a natural adap- 
tation of his soil to such treatment, but 
more to a perfection in his cultivation 
which few will reach. We presume his 
soil was often stirred, and that to a great 
depth the air was let in ; and under its 
influence that manure was first dccom- 
■posed, and then recomposcd into com- 
pounds tit to feed the strawberry. 

With but ordinary skill in cultivation, 
and especially on compact soils, the ele- 
ments of fresh manure, buried two or 
three feet deep, either lie dormant, or if 
decomposed, are again recomposed into 
compounds, hurtful instead of beneficial 
to plants. The influence of sun and air 
is wanted to secure the best operation of 
fresh manure. 

B. V. French, Esq., of Braintree, 
Mass., tells a story in point. He once 
plowed in an enormous quantity of ma- 
nure fi-om one to two feet deep on a sub- 
stantial, but not very heavy soil. The 
crop was not improved. He looked for 
that manure the second year. It did 
not come. He looked in vain for a good 
effect the third year, the fourth, and on ; 
and he wonders whether there is science 
enough in the world to tell where his 
manure has gone, as he has never heard 
from it. The fact is, he had shut it out 
from the influence of sun and air, and it 
formed other compounds than those 
which nature designed as the food of 
plants. 

No man shall outdo us in a high ap- 
preciation of the instructions of the late 
A. J. Downing ; and we believe those of 
his son are destined to a like salutary, 
elevating, enriching and refining influ- 



ence on the country. But we never can 
subscribe to a two or three feet burial of 
fresh manure, except in the lightest soils, 
and even for such we think a less depth 
better. 

A better way of manuring for straw- 
berries, if you have none but fresh ma- 
nure, is to mix with it large quantities 
of leaf mold, well cured swamp muck, or 
other substances of a like nature, ten 
loads at least to one of the manure, and 
to incorporate well with the soil, from 
the very surface downward as deeply as 
you please. In the September number 
of the Plough, Loom, and Anvil, for 
1850, at page 14G, is an article on the 
cultivation of the strawberry, embracing 
all or nearly all that need be known for 
the cultivation of this delicious and 
health-giving fruit, in any and all quan- 
tities. 

Before the proper time to commence 
a strawberry plot, we will revise and en- 
large that article, and give it in an im- 
proved form to our readers. — Ed. 



From the Magasine of Horticulture. 

WINTERS OF '55-6 AND '56-7. 

The winter of 1855 and 1856 was one 
of unusual severity at the West, doing 
immense damage to firuit trees of all 
kinds, killing, in many instances, plan- 
tations of many years' standing, and its 
disastrous effects will long be remem- 
bered. That of 1856 and 1857, though 
not, perhaps, equally severe, will, how- 
ever, long be remembered by the oulti 
vators of New-England, having been 
more injurious to trees than any winter 
since the memorable one of 1835. In 
Maine the damage to trees was very 
great, killing many outright of several 
years' growth ; the Bartlett and other 
of the more tender pears suffering the 
most. What appears to be one pecu- 
liarity, so far as our experience goes, 
was the death of pcai s on the pear stock, 
the quince suffering little or none, show- 
ing conclusively that it is quite as hardy 
as the pear, and much better capable of 
sustaining frost in damp localities, where 
the pear invariably suHered. Another 
peculiarity was the almost entire exemp- 
tion from injury of the peach buds, not- 



96 



HORTICULTURAL, 



withstanding the thermometer stood at 
20° below zero. Heretofore it has been 
believed, and we have latterly given cur- 
rency to the idea, that 12* below zero 
was the point at which the germ of the 
peach buds was likely to be destroyed. 
The experience of the past winter quite 
upsets this theory, evidently showing it 
is not the intemUy of tbe frost that does 
the injury, but the condition of the 
weather before or afterwards, or the pe- 
riod of the winter when it occurs. The 
same trees which in 1855 and 1856 lost 
about all their buds when the mercury 
fell to 12° below, now produced a full 
crop. 

As regards fruit generally, the season 
has not been very favorable. Apples in 
some localities bore tolerably well, but 
in New-England the crop has been very 
light. Pears were not near up to the 
average. Cherries suffered from the 
wintei', and from the cool and damp 
summer. Grapes were a failure, the 
vines mildewing badly, and the crop not 
coming to maturity before fiost. Of all 
the fruits the pear gave the best results 
this year, as it did the last. 



From the Magazine of Horticulture. 

HORTICULTURAL LITERATURE. 

There have been very few publica- 
tions during the year. The only work 
of note has been The Fruits and Fruit 
Trees of America, revised by Mr. C. 
Downing, and noticed in our last num- 
ber. The first number of the third vol- 
ume of The Fruits of America has ap- 
peared, and other numbers will soon be 
published. The Patent OflBce Report for 
1856 is a considerable improvement upon 
the preceding ones, both in the charac- 
ter of the reports and general informa- 
tion, and in the typographical execution 
of the volume. The Transactions of the 
Massachusetts State Board of Agricul- 
ture for 1856, by Mr. C. L. Flint, the 
secretary, has been prepared with unu- 
sual labor and care, and contains very 
minute descriptions of all the principal 
grasses, with engravings ; and will prove 
a most acceptable work to all interested 
in agriculture. New editions of McMa- 
hon's Gardening, Allen's treatise on the 
Grape, and some other works have been 
published. The illustrated annuals, 
from the officers of the Albany Cultivator 
and the Genesee Farmer, are both small 
works of much interest to all who can 
not readily obtain more complete treatises 



on the same subjects. The agricultural 
papers have been improved considerably, 
and the Ohio Farmer, one of the best, is 
to appear in a more convenient form for 
preservation. 



In addition to the record we have al- 
ready given we have to add tbe name of 
James D. Fulton, nurseryman, of Phila- 
delphia. He died very suddenly, in New- 
Jersey, in his 43d year. Mr. Fulton was 
one of the most intelligent nujserymen. 
He served his time with Messrs. D. &. C. 
Landreth, was subsequently foreman of 
the establishment, and after the relin- 
quishment of business by Mr. T. Land- 
reth, became a partner with his brother. 
Mr. D. Landreth. At the closing up of 
the business of this firm a iQw years 
later, Mr. Fulton established a nursery 
on his own account, and at the tmie of 
his death had considerably extended his 
grounds, and enjoyed a lucrative trade. 
Ilis loss will be deeply regretted by all 
who had the pleasure of his acquaint- 
ance. 



For the American Farmers' Magazine. 

Mr. Ed. : — I would be pleased if you 
would answer the following question 
under your head of Interrogatories : 

My residence stands upon a slight ele- 
vation, about sixteen feet above the 
level water of a clear stream. Now, I 
should like to know whether I could, by 
means of a " Hydi-aulic Ram" and leaden 
pipes, force the water into my yard, a 
distance of about forty yards from the 
body of aforesaid water ? The current 
is very slow, being only about one mile 
per hour. An elucidation on this sub- 
ject would much oblige a constant reader. 
Will you recommend a work from which 
I can gain knowledge on this subject? 
R. J. F. 

Answering the last question first, we 
know of no book to recommend but 
" Ewbanks' HydrauUcs." This contains 
all you want, with much more which 
you might not care to pay for. It would 
be $2 50, if sent post-paid from this of- 
fice. Very possibly the common School 
Philosophies, found in almost every 



HORTICULTURAL 



97 



family, would explain all you want to 
know on that subject. 

But we have procured a rough engrav- 
ing for the purpose of illustrating the 
principles of the hydraulic ram, bfecause 
we believe that many of our readers will 
feel an interest in this subject akin to 
yours. 




In this cut you will readily distinguish 
the drive-pipe by its sloping position, 
and the lift-pipe by the water issuing 
from its top. The water passes down 
the drive-pipe, and by its force lifts the 
valve opening upward into the air-cham- 
ber, but will rise in the air-chamber no 
higher than the fountain from which the 
drive-pipe is supplied. This is on the 
simple principle, that water seeks its le- 
vel — will rise in the spout of the tea-ket- 
tle as high as in the kettle itself, but no 
higher. 

To the right of the air-chamber is the 
escape pipe, through which the water is 
discharged, and wastes till its velocity 
becomes sufficient to raise the valve of 
the waste-pipe. The effect of the shut- 
ting of this valve is to suddenly stop the 
whole body of water in the drive-pipe. 
The downward flow of this water is 
overcome; but we know that the ten- 
dency of a heavy body, once moving, is 
to keep moying. If you strike a nail 
with a hammer, the hammer stops, but 
does not stop the instant it hits the nail, 
nor till after it has settled the nail a lit- 
tle into the wood. So this body of water 
in the drive-pipe stops, but not till after 
7 



it has forced a little water into the air- 
chamber and thence into the lift-pipe, 
raising the water in the lift-pipe some- 
what higher than the fountain. The 
valve in the lift-pipe shuts by the weight 
of the water above it, and prevents a re- 
flux. This done, the valve in the waste- 
pipe falls open of its own weight, and 
remains open till the water down the 
drive-pipe acquires a new motion suflB- 
cient to raise the valve again in the es- 
cape-pipe. As soon as this rises, or 
shuts upwards, the whole body of water 
in the di-ive-pipe is again stopped, but 
does not stop till it has forced another 
portion through into the air-chamber, 
and thence onward into the lift-pipe. 

Thus alternately the rushing of the 
water through the escape-pipe shuts the 
valve leading into it, and the sudden 
stopping of the downward flow in the 
drive-pipe opens the air-chamber valve 
and forces at each time a portion of wa- 
ter tlirough, till the lifting-pipe 'is filled 
to the top and overflows. The object of 
the air-chamber is to equalize the up- 
ward motion, as without it the water, 
instead of flowing regularly, would flow 
irregularly — a little at each closing of 
the valve, then to cease till another clos- 
ing of the same valve. 

A fall of at least two feet is necessary 
to a reliable action of the hydraulic ram, 
where the elevation is as great as the 
one above described ; and it is evident 
that a large amount of waste water 
would be required in such a case. A 
greater fall would be desirable if it could 
be obtained. The distance fr m the 
water to the yard i^ not objectionable. 
Your only question is, can you, by dam- 
ming the stream, or cutting a race-way, 
or both, get a fall of two feet or more, and 
at the same time keep clear of back 
water? If you can, then the hydraulic 
ram affords the best means of carrying 
that water into your yard. Otlierwise, 
a pump connected by a lead pipe with 
the brook would be preferable, _ 

A. W. Gay & Co., 118 Maiden Lane, 



98 



HORTICULTURAL 



are selling a pump which would proba- 
bly answer the purpose well, as also a 
self-adjusting wind-mill, adapted to the 
drawing of water for cattle. See their 
advertisement on our advertising pages. 

The query of another correspondent 
relates to a similar subject. He has to 
draw water for a large stock of horses, 
cattle and sheep from a very deep well, 
and asks, " Would it be good economy 
to sink a tank, and turn into it the rain 
water from the barn and sheds?" We 
think it would. No water is better for 
stock than rain water, properly pre- 
served in a clean tank. If filtered, it is 
the best water in the world for all pur- 
poses. But we have not at hand the 
means of estimating the expense of a 
tank of suflBcient capacity for a large 
stock. One thing we can say positively, 
and that is, it is more economical to con- 
struct a tank, at whatever the expense 
may be, or even to draw water from a 
deep well, than let your cattle stray 
abroad for water. In many cases a tank 
might be sunk on ground a little higher 
than the yard, and the water be drawn 
from it without the labor of pumping. 

Another correspondent asks our opin- 
ion about the different breeds of cattle : 
" Which are the best, all in all, for the 
various objects the farmer seeks to ob- 
tain, as working, milking and fattening?" 
Hold still a little, friend ; we are trying, 
from month to month, to tell you some- 
thing about that, not that we are over 
confident in our opinions ; but you see 
we have invited all the world to come 
and refute us on our own ground, if we 
get on a wrong track. It will not be 
long before we shall run foul of some- 
body's opinions, or tread on somebody's 
corns, or dash against somebody's inte- 
rests, and then there will be "light on 
the subject" struck up in these pages, 
beyond a peradventure. 

A lady reader puts us some tough 
questions of a culinary nature. Alas ! 
our better half has gone into the country, 
and we d&n not answer such questions 



just iiow. When she returns there is 
no knowing how wise we shall be in 
these matters. — Ed. 



Ed. Farmers' Magazine : — Some three 
years since I saw in a lady's flower-pot 
a plant of remarkable luxuriance, and 
thinking it might be a valuable accession 
to our field grasses, proposed to her to 
let it ripen and I would pay her any 
price for the seed. I have not been dis- 
appointed. Its growth in the garden 
was ten feet high, foliage very thick and 
fine, large pendant heads a foot in length, 
full of heavy seed resembling millet. 
The last spring I had several bushels of 
it, and sold Breck and Nourse, seedmen 
of Boston, each a bushel, which they 
circulated in small parcels, hoping to 
have it spread through the country. 
They asked me what name they should 
give it. Not knowing its origin, I said 
perhaps Chinese Millet for the present. 
It being an object to get all the seed 
possible, I have cut none early {or fodder. 
After gathering the ripened seed, I have 
fed the dry stalks to the cattle. They 
eat it as well as those of the Chinese su- 
gar cane. Having read an article in 
your Farmers^ Magazine for January, on 
Hungarian Grass, it struck me that 
mine might be a superior variety of that, 
while yielding more fodder and more 
than twice the quantity of seed. 

Yours truly, Benjamin Willabd. 
Lancaster, Mass., Jan. 7, 1858. 



GRAPES. 

A wbiteb in the Louisville Journal 
says: 

I keep my vines about 6 feet in height 
for convenience in gathering the clusters. 
All kinds of animal substances are good 
for our vines. Street manure is excel- 
lent for them. They ought not, how- 
ever, to be stimulated too highly, for 
then they become profuse in foliage, and 
the fruit mildews and rots. 'An even re- 
gular growth ought to be kept up. Rot- 
ten sods mixed with barn-yard manure 
is good for vines. Blood is good. Long 
Island might, by means of the fish call- 
ed Manhaden, be made one beautiful 



MECHANICAL. 



99 



vine-yard. Take the fish in June, make 
a hole near the foot with a crowbar, 
push down a fish — there will be no smell 
from it, and it is an admirable manure 
for grapes. 

Composts of sea-weed, black earth, 
and cow and horse dung are good. 

Ashes are excellent on sandy lands, 
where their prosphates are leached off 
by rains. 

Prune in March ; they bleed, and my 
bleeding vines present a magnificent 
spectacle in the rays of the sun. Slight 
bleeding does not hurt them a bit. The 
bud starts the better for it. The Ger- 
mans say " if the juice runs out of the 
vines, we know we shall have a good 
crop." In France and Italy, however, 



they do not prune so as to bleed their 
vines. • 

SCATTERING SALT ON APPLE 
TREES. 
Dr. E. Sanborn, of Andover, sends to 
the editor of the Advertiser of that town, 
a specimen of Porter apples gathered 
from the tree on the 19 th of November, 
which he thinks were kept on the 
branches by throwing salt on them. 
The editor, after having tasted the apples, 
remarks, that, " whether from the salting 
or the late gathering it imbibed such a 
delicious flavor, we do not know ; but 
this we do know, that it was one of the 
best Porter apples that we have ever 
tasted. We think the experiment M'orth 
a further trial." 



Jttt^rhanirnL 



From Newton's London Journal. 

IMPROVEMENTS IN AGRICULTU- 
RAL IMPLEMENTS, ETC. 
An improved method of purifying water, 
by Henry Medlock, of Great Marlbo- 
rough, London, 

This invention consists of a method of 
purifying and rendering more wholesome 
and useful water which either contains 
in solution only organic matter or the 
products of its decomposition, or which 
may also contain in solution inorganic 
matter, by separating and removing 
from the water a portion of such organ- 
ic matter, and rendering the remainder 
of such organic matter innocuous ; and 
in case the water also contains in solu- 
tion inorganic matter, by separating and 
removing from the water a certain por- 
tion of such inorganic matter, and by 
rendering innocuous any phosphides or 
sulphides which the water may contain 
in solution, by converting such phos- 
phides into phosphites or phosphates, 
and such sulphides into sulphites or sul- 
phates respectively. 

The water, previously to its filtration, 
is placed in a vessel or reservoir of con- 
venient size, and there allowed to re- 
main, in contact with certain solid bo- 
dies of metal or other substance present- 
ing a sufficient extent of surface to the 
water, for twenty-four hours or longer, 
according to the quantity of water as 
compared with the exposed surface, or 
until the precipitation of organic matter. 



occasioned by such contact, <^ases, after 
which, any of the precipitate occasioned 
by the aforesaid process, which may re- 
main suspended in the water, should be 
removed by filtration in the ordinary 
manner. 

The solid body preferred to be used is 
iron, (on account of the little injury the 
water sustains by contact therewith,) 
and in the form of scrap-iron, iron turn- 
ings, iron wire, or sheet-iron. 

The following is the mode of applying 
the invention : — Suspend in a tank or re- 
servoir containing the water to be puri- 
fied, by means of iron rods passing across 
it, iron wire of about one-sixteenth of an 
inch in diameter, loosely packed in bun- 
dles or coils, and in the proportion of 
about one pound weight of such wire to 
every one hundred gallons of water. Al- 
low the water to remain in contact with 
the iron wire from twenty-four to forty- 
eight hours, according to the rapidity 
with which the precipitation of organic 
matter, occasioned by such contact, takes 
place ; and then pass the water through 
any kind of filtei 'ng medium now in use, 
which is capable of retaining the precip- 
itate formed. For the filtration of water 
in large bulk, the ordinary sand filter 
may be used. 

The effect of the contact of the water 
with the solid bodies above described, 
when the water contains nitrogen in any 
form, is to decompose or oxydize the or- 
ganic matter, and the ammonia contain- 
ed in the water whereby a certain part of 



100 



MECHANICAL, 



the organic matter and ammonia is con- 
verted into nitrious or nitric acids, or both 
of them, by which the rest of the organic 
matter is rendered insoluble. The ni- 
trous and nitric acids finally combine 
with the iron or other solid bodies above 
described, or with some of the inorganic 
bases, if any, contained in the water ; 
and the organic matter rendered insolu- 
ble is precipitated, together with some 
part of the inorganic matter, if any, con- 
tained in the water ; and any phosphides 
or sulpMdes which may be contained in 
the water are converted by oxidation 
into phosphites or phosphates, or sul- 
phites or sulphates, respectively, which 
are comparatively harmless. 

Improved machinery for cultivating land, 
by Alfred Vincent Newton. 

This invention relates to the cultiva- 
tion of land by spades, operated by lo- 
comotive power as the machine progress- 
es in the field ; the machine will also 
more thor(lughly break up, disintregate, 
and turn over the sward than can be done 
by ploughs. The entire machine is pro- 
pelled in the field, in any direction re- 
quired, and turned at the will of the at- 
tendant; and the same power which 
does this, operates a series of spades, 
which enter the land, each in succession, 
and cut into it in the arc of a circle, and, 
after cutttng down to the required depth, 
suddenly throw up the cut slice against 
a shield plate, so as to reverse it, and at 
the same time to break it up, so that, 
when it falls down, it will be thoroughly 
disintegi'ated ; the forward movement of 
the machine determining the thickness 
of the slices to be cut by the spades. 

Improvements in giving motion to ploughs 
and other agricultural implements, by 
John Fowler, Jun., of Havering, near 
Romford, Essex, Eng. 

Heretofore when ploughs and other 
agricultural implements have received 
motion by means of ropes wound round 
capstans or drums, driven by steam or 
otherwise, two of such capstans or drums 
have usually been mounted on the same 
horizontal axis, or ' on axes parallel to 
each other, which arrangements are in 
practice found to be inconvenient. Now 
this invention consists in mounting such 
capstans or drums on separate axes, 
placed at an angle to each other. 

The invention also consists in moving 
the pulley anchors along the headlands 
by the power of the engine acting 
through the same rope as that which 



draws the plough. The rope from the 
winding apparatus passes first over a 
stationary puUey and then over the move- 
able pulley on the headland, from which 
it passes at right angles to the plough. 
To overcome the tendency which exists, 
when the strain is on the tackle, to draw 
the anchor of the moveable pulley to- 
wards the fixed pulley, the anchor of the 
moveable pulley is secured to an addi- 
tional or supplemental anchor, which 
prevents it from moving while the plough 
is traveling ; but when it is wished that 
this anchor should be drawn along the 
headland, it is only necessary to slacken 
the tackle which secures it to its supple- 
mental anchor, and then the strain on 
the rope which draws the plough will 
cause it to move forward. 

The invention also consists in a method 
of supporting and carrying the rope by 
which the plough is drawn, so as to pre- 
vent the rapid wear of the tackle which 
takes place when the rope lies on the 
land. 

An improvement in ploughs, by William 

Dray, of Swan-lane, London. 

This invention relates to such ploughs 
as are provided with a share in the form 
of a pointed bar, and consists in the 
means of securing the bar in its position 
after having been pushed forward, as re- 
quired from the wearing away of the 
point thereof. 

The patentee claims the " construction 
of ploughs, which are provided with 
moveable share bars, in such manner 
that the share bars can be tightened or 
slackened by means of an excentric roll- 
er or collar, or by more than one roller 
or collar, as described." 

Improvements in machhiery for delivering 
manure for agricultural purposes, by 
Robert Reeves and John Reeves, of But- 
ton, Westburg, Wiltshire, Eng. 

This invention has for its object im- 
provements in machinery for delivering 
manure for agricultural purposes. For 
this purpose the manure is placed in a 
suitable box or trough, mounted on a 
proper carriage. The box or trough is 
formed with a curved bottom, and may 
be made with any number of openings 
for the passage of the manure ; and 
over each opening is a slide or cover. 
At the lower part of the box or trough 
a rotating axis works, and on this axis 
there are fixed inclined blades or por- 
tions of screws being each of such a 
width as to move the quantity of manure 



MECHANICAL. 



101 



desired ; and the peculiarity of the in- 
vention is, that the inchned blades or 
portions of the screws which are to 
bring up or move the quantity of ma- 
nure to an opening, are inclined to the 
axis in opposite directions. The manure, 
after it has been caused to pass through 
the openings of the trough or box, may 
be deposited or distributed on or in the 
earth, as heretofore, or in any other con- 
venient manner, 

ImprovemeiUs in hor'se hoes, by JonN Nay- 
LOR, of Winterton, near Brigg, Lincoln- 
shire, JEng. 

The object of these improvements in 
horse hoes is to render each of the hoes 
capable of being moved to and from its 
neighbor, in order to admit of vary- 
ing their distance apart, and yet allow 
the whole series of hoes in the ma- 
chine being moved laterally, according 
to the requirement for the time being. 



ARTIl^ICIAL FIRE CLAY. 
Common clay is very fusible ; this is 
owing to the presence of lime, iron and 
magnesia in it. By removing these sub- 
stances, it can be employed for making 
very refractory vessels, such as crucibles, 
to withstand a very high degree of heat. 
The way to do this, is to steep the clay 
for some hours — (from six to twenty- 
four, in dilute muriatic acid, according 
to the quantity of these substances in it) 
— then washing it with water, and dry- 
ing it afterwards. The muriatic acid 
takes up and dissolves the substances 
named, which are removed with the 
washing. 

TELEGRAPHIC IMPROVEMENTS. 

Edward Highton, C. E., of England, 
has just obtained a patent for, firstly, 
sending telegraphic messages hoth ways 
through one and the same wire, at the 
same instant, without interfering in any 
way with each other ; secondly, for pre- 
venting the destruction of a wire in the 
sea or underground ; and, thirdly, for 
mending a telegraphic wire in the ocean 
without raising it out of the mud. 



PATENTS. 

Seed Planters — II. F. Baker, of Cen- 
terville, Ind. 

Sewing Machines. — D. W. Clark, of 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

Flouring Mills. — Edwin Clark, of 
Lancaster, Pa. 



Husking and Shelling Glove. — Emil 
Cohen, Washington, D. C. 

Rakes for Harvesters. — SamuelCom- 
fort, Jr., of Morrisville, Pa. 

Seeding MACnmES. — I. H. Conklin, of 
Rockford, 111. - 

Railroad Car Coupling. — J. M. Con- 
nel, of Newark, Ohio. 

Hydr.a.nt. — Richard De Charms, of 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Lime Kilns. — H. R. Fell, of Texas, 
Md. 

Flour Bolting. — David Geib, of Mif- 
flintown, Pa. 

Attachment of Adjustable Foot 
Boards to Splints. — John Gruol, of 
New-York city. 

Seed Planters. — Marshall Hunt and 
J. H. Haines, of Rising Sun, Md. 

Operating Telegram Keys. — John 
J. Hayden, of Rising Sun, Ind. 

Bit Holder.— B. B. Hill and S. W. 
Adams, of Chicopee, Mass. 

Hydrant. — John Hyde, of New- York 
city. 

Measuring the Superficies of Boards. 
-^S. C. Kennerd, of South Newmarket, 
N. H. 

Shingle Machine. — Robert Law, of 
Portage City, Wis. 

Churn. — S. F. Lefler, of Racine, Wis. 

Dovetailing Rotary Cutters in their 
Heads. — G. H. Mallary, of New- York 
city. 

Process for Dyeing Silk. — Nicholas 
Mary Aine, of Philadelphia, Pa. 

Washing Machine. — Samuel P. Me- 
cay, of Killburne, Ohio. 

Bending Tin. — George W. Merk, of 
Leavenworth, K. T. 

Construction of Brooms. — Abner 
Mitchell, of Eaton, Pa. 

Metal Tips for Toes of Boots and 
Shoes. — George A. Mitchell, of Turner, 
Maine. 

Cotton Gins. — James F. Orr, of Orr- 
ville, Ala. 

Electko-Magnetic Speed Governor. 
— George M. Phelps, of Troy, N. Y. 

Construction of Ships. — John Reeves, 
of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Attachment for Ltghtino Lanterns. 
— Albert C. Richard, of Newtown, Conn. 

Manufacturing Paper. — Stephen 
Rossmanj of Stuyvesant, N. Y. 



102 



SCIENTIFIC. 



Shears for CuTxraG Bank Notes, &c. 
— Stephen P, Ruggles, of Boston, Mass. 
LiGHTKNiNG Sea-going Steam Ves- 
sels. — John C. F. Salomon and George 
W. Morris, of Baltimore, Md. 

Harness Saddles. — Henry Sanders, of 
Utica, N. Y. 

Turning Lathes. — William D. Sloan, 
of New-York city. 

Rails for Railroads. — Levi B. Tyng, 
of Jersey City, N. J. 

Potato Planters. — H. "Wainwright 
and S. T. Williams, of Farmingdale, N. 
J. 

Harvesters. — Jesse Whitehead, of 
Manchester, Va. 



Mathematical Dividers. — John E. 
Earle, of Leicester, Mass., (assignor to 
himself and Samuel Shepherd, of Nashau, 
N. H.) 

Lathe for Turning Wood. — Amander 

N. Wilcox, of Watervliet, N. Y. 

Oscillating Steam Engines — Adam 
Wood, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Sewing Machines. — George Fetter, 
(assignor to himself and Edward Jones,) 
of Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hominy Mills. — Ezra Farhrney, of 
Deep River, Iowa, (assignor to John 
Donaldson, of Mount Morris, 111.) 



ri^nti^r. 



CHEMICAL. 



SUPPLY AND EXHAUSTION OF CARBONIC 
ACID. ITS USE IN AGRICULTURE. 

Animals, including man, inhale such 
atmosphere as happens to be where they 
are. 

The atmosphere, in a normal state, is 
made up of about 79 parts of nitrogen to 
21 of oxygen, with about one part in 
2500 of carbonic acid, and something 
like one in 10,000 of ammonia. 

These gases are inhaled in about the 
foregoing proportions ; but are exhaled 
in very different proportions. The oxy- 
gen of the air comes in contact with the 
carbon of the blood, and forms with it 
carbonic acid, by a process in the lungs 
very similar to combustion. 

Burn a wisp of hay ; it creates heat, 
its carbon combines with oxygen and 
forms carbonic acid, it entirely disap- 
pears with the exception of a little ash. 

Give that same hay to an ox ; it creates 
heat, its carbon combines with oxygen, 
and it disappears, with the exception of 
such portions as are entirely indigesti- 
ble. Thus all animals are constantly 
supplying carbonic acid to the atmos- 
phere. 

We have already explained that com- 
bustion effects the same result. All our 
fires then, our lights, every burning 



body is constantly throwing carbonic 
acid into the air. This is one of the 
reasons why open fire-places are health- 
ier than close stoves ; — they carry the 
carbonic acid, generated by the fire and 
the lights up the chimney. It shows 
also why strong gas lights are unhealthy 
— they fill the air with this acid. 

A third source of supply is decaying 
matter. When you put a stick of wood 
on the fire, the largest part of it passes 
into the air in watery vapor, carbonic 
acid and a little ammonia ; and a small 
portion remains as ash. But decay is 
much the same thing as combustion in a 
slow way. 

Throw another stick of wood into the 
field. In a few years it will have disap- 
peared. What has become of it ? Much 
the same as if you had burnt it. Most 
of it has gone into the air as watery 
vapor, carbonic acid and a little ammo- 
nia ; and what would have remained as 
ash, if it had been thrown upon the fire, 
has been dissolved, and washed into the 
ground. 

All decaying matters, then, whether 
vegetable or animal, are incessantly sup- 
plying carbonic acid to the air. 

In many parts of the globe, where 
there are extinct volcanoes, carbonic acid 
oozes from the ground, or issues fix)m 



SCIENTIFI C 



103 



caves and crevices in the rocks, gene- 
rated, as is supposed, by subterranean 
fires ; and this same gas is, in part, a 
product of all active volcanoes ; so that 
the volcanic action of the globe, past and 
present, afifords a further source of sup- 
ply- 

All marble, limestone, shells of fish, 
coral, and many of the shields of insects, 
consist largely of carbonic acid. A pint 
of pulverized marble, or chalk, will give 
off, if heated, several gallons of carbonic 
acid. Now, if we consider what quanti- 
ties of limestone, coral, shells, chalk, &c., 
are burnt into quick lime for agricultural 
and mechanical purposes, we shall find 
that this affords a very abundant source 
of supply. A large lime kiln, burning, 
would destroy every thing living near, 
if it were not for that great principle, or 
law in nature, by which gases are taken 
up by each other, and equally diffused. 

With this law in operation, there is 
no more carbonic acid in a given region, 
after the burning of a lime kiln, than its 
due proportion, as compared with other 
regions ; because, under the law for the 
diffusion of gases, it has become about 
equally distributed throughout the 
whole atmosphere of the globe. 

These are the chief sources of supply : 
1. Respiration. 2. Combustion. 3. De- 
cay. 4. Volcanic action. 5. The de- 
composition of carbonates, as when we 
burn limestone, chalk, shells, or corals 
into quick lime. The fermentation of 
all vinous liquors, beer, cider, wine, &c., 
as well as the fermentation of com'posts, 
and the heating of hay and grain, pro- 
duce this gas ; and the bubbles escaping 
from mineral waters are, for the most 
part, notliing else. 

With these sources of supply ever 
active, the question arises, why the air 
does not become overcharged with it. 
This leads us to consider the means of 
exhaustion. 

In the first place, this gas is very ab- 
sorbable by water. Every rivulet, brook 
and river takes a portion of it from the 



air and bears it along to the ocean. It 
is probable that the ocean itself absorbs 
it, as analysts affirm that over and near 
the ocean, the air contains slightly Jess 
than in far inland regions. 

When mingled with the ocean, a por- 
tion of it goes to form the substance of 
fish ; some to form the shells of shell- 
fish ; and more to form the coral reefs 
and coral islands that are always in pro- 
cess of formation. 

There is pretty good evidence that in 
remote periods past the air was more 
heavily charged with this gas. It is in- 
ferred by some, that, as it has dimin- 
ished in past ages, it will continue to 
diminish, and that the time will come, 
when there will be too little to sustain a 
vegetation adequate to supply food, and 
that so, by a process, which is continu- 
ally going on, the earth will become un- 
inhabitable. 

It is undoubtedly true that the waters 
of the globe are gradually absorbing it. 
And it is true also that much of it is 
being locked up in the form of submarine 
carbonates, such as coral rocks of vast 
extent, shells, &c., which can not be ex- 
pected very soon to come to light. But 
it is true, on the other hand, that vast 
quantities of this gas, which for ages 
past have lain dormant in the mountain 
lime-stone, and in the coral strand, and 
greater quantities still, which have been 
locked up in immense coal formations, 
but which the spirit of commerce and 
manufactures in this age of steam is now 
unlocking. 

It is true also that in every cargo of 
fish which is landed from the ocean, is 
the carbon for millions of gallons of this 
gas, and that it is thus being brought 
back to the land and made to rcsup- 
ply the air ; and it would seem probable 
that the activity and enterprise of an in- 
creasing population may nearly or quite 
balance the absorption by the ocean ; 
and the globe, including its atmosphere, 
continue as rich in plant food as at pre- 
sent. We have an impression, strong, 



104 



SCIENTIFIC 



though we might not be able to support 
it by reasoning, that this globe is to be- 
come better, not worse, for the suste- 
nance of man and those animals designed 
for his benefit. At any rate, we shall 
not yet give in to the fear that the re- 
sources for man's sustenance and com- 
fort are likely very soon to be exhaust- 
ed. 

But, in the second place, plants, by 
their growth, are the chief means for ex- 
hausting the air of carbonic acid ; as, by 
their destruction, they are a prominent 
means for supplying it. They are the 
great regulator. If by any means the 
atmosphere were overcharged with car- 
bonic acid, they would grow more luxu- 
riantly, and thus bring it back to its 
normal state. If it had less than its nor- 
mal proportion, they would grow less 
luxuriantly, and so leave the carbonic 
acid to accumulate from its various 
soiu-ces of supply. 

A tree grows ; the mineral elements 
— a very small part of the whole — only 
what constitutes its ash, when burned — 
comes from the ground. All the rest 
comes from the air. Suppose it to be a 
sturdy oak. It may have been a hun- 
dred years in growing. The solid mat- 
ter of its roots, trunk and top might 
weigh, when perfectly dried, 6,000 lbs. 
At least half of this, or 3,000 lbs., is car- 
bon. But it should be remembered that 
6 lbs. of carbon are equal to 22 lbs. of 
carbonic acid, in as much as the compo- 
sition of carbonic acid is 6 lbs. of carbon 
to 16 lbs. oxygen. The accumulation 
of 3,000 lbs. of carbon, then, during the 
growth of that tree, must have taken 
from the air 11,000 lbs. of carbonic acid, 
an immense volume, since the weight of 
this gas is but once and a half that of 
common air. 

But sooner or later this tree is des- 
tined to restore that carbonic acid to the 
air. If consumed as fuel, it would re- 
store it in a short time ; if left to decay 
on the ground, in a few decades of years ; 
or if wrought into the carved works of 



the most magnificent building, in a few 
centuries ; and then that same carbonic 
acid that fed the oak will go into other 
plants, will thus become food for ani- 
mals, only to be soon released again, and 
so to go on in successive rounds. 

To get some idea of the amount of 
carbon drawn by growing plants from 
the air, let us consider the immense 
amoimt of vegetable growth for a single 
year. At dry weight, about half of all 
this is carbon. Now if we multiply half 
the dry weight of aU the vegetation of a 
year on this continent by 3f , it would 
give the weight of carbonic acid drawn 
from the air over this continent in a sin- 
gle year. 

The rounds which this gas takes are 
in some cases very slow, as, for instance, 
when a panel from an old English oak 
got into the ceiling of White HaU in 
London seven hundred years ago, and is 
there yet undecayed. But in other cases 
it is very rapid ; as if an ox in a clover 
field should clip forage in the morning, 
exhale its carbon at noon, to be taken 
in by another plant, and that plant to be 
devoured by another ox before night ; 
in which case the same carbon would 
have been food for two plants and for 
two oxen in one day. 

We do not think this is an extr:ivagant 
supposition. The transformations of na- 
ture are very rapid ; and probably there 
is at this day no food for man or beast, 
the identical particles of which, some of 
them at least, have not been consumed 
as food a thousand times before. An 
enterprising farmer, near a large city, 
once said to a living man in it, " Give 
me your dead horses this week, and I'll 
bring them back to you next week in 
the form of as fine butter as you ever 
ate." He contemplated dissolving them 
by a chemical process, to be applied to 
dairy pastures in a diluted state ; and 
there is reason to believe that in that 
way his promise would have been veri- 
fied to the letter. 

Soils, however rich in the mineral in- 



SCIENTIFIC 



10$ 



gredients of plants, require, in order to 
their highest productiveness, carbona- 
ceous manures. 

By carbonaceous manures are to be 
understood those which consist largely 
of decaying vegetable matter, such as 
txirf^ the roots of former crops left in the 
ground, green crops plowed in, swamp 
peat, decaying leaves, leaf mould, and 
harn-yard manure. 

The action of these manures is two- 
fold: 

1. Mechanical, to vary the condition 
of the soil by mingling a lighter sub- 
stance with it, to separate the heavier 
particles from each other, and prevent 
their so compacting as to exclude a free 
circulation of the air. 

2. Chemical. Air and moisture, hav- 
ing access to the carbonaceous matter 
in the soil, cause it to decay rapidly. 
The oxygen of the air combines with the 
carbon to form carbonic acid ; and the 
carbonic acid, when formed, produces at 
least three distinct effects : 

1. It produces a further mechanical ac- 
tion. As when yeast is put into dough, the 
carbonic acid generated from it, by its 
expansive force, pushes the particles of 
dough apart from each other, and makes 
the bread light and tender; so that, 
generated in the soil from carbonaceous 
manures, exerts an expansive force upon 
the soil, making it lighter, more pervious 
to the roots, and more accessible to air. 

2. It is dissolved in water, and the 
water, by absorbing it, is rendered ca- 
pable of dissolving several mineral sub- 
stances in the soil, and rendering them 
fit for plant food, which are insoluble in 
water not impregnated with this acid. 
Lime, for instance, is nearly insoluble in 
pure water, but dissolves to a considera- 
ble extent in water impregnated with 
carbonic acid. 

8. It becomes food for the growing 
plant, a portion of it being taken in by 
the roots, dissolved in water, but more 
being seized by the leaves as it oozes 
from the ground and seeks to mingle 
with the air. 



Plants, so far as their carbon is con- 
sidered, are, in the first place, fed from 
that carbonic acid which is always in 
the air in its normal state, this being 
taken in through the leaves ; and then, 
in the second place, in a well manured 
field, they receive extra food from that 
which is generated about their roots, by 
the decay of carbonaceous manures. The 
latter, there can be but little doubt, is ta- 
ken in both by the roots and leaves. — Ed. 



METEOROLOGICAL. 
chapman's precalculations. 

[Entered according to Act of Congress, in th« 
year 1856, hy L. L. CHAPMAN, in the Clerk's 
Office of the District Court, for the Eastern Dis- 
trict of Pennsylvama.'] 

FIRST DEPARTMENT. 

EXPLANATORY. 

THE TERM POSITIVE is here given 
to conditions abounding 7nore with vital 
electricity, inspiring more health, vigor, 
cheerfulness, and letter feelings for bu- 
siness, intercourse, etc., and consequent- 
ly greater success, enjoyment, etc. 

THE TERM NEGATIVE is given to 
those conditions which ahound less with 
electricity, and consequently are more 
unfavorable to health, feelings, business, 
social intercourse, etc. 
IT Indicates Sundays. 
SECOND MONTH, (February,) 1858. 
Tendency. Time o'clock 

1st, Negative, from 1 to 8 morn. 
Positive, from 8 morn to 1 eve. 
Mixed, from 2 to 12 eve. 
2d, Positive, from 1 to 11 morn. 

Negative, from 12 noon to 12 eve. 
3d, Negative, from 1 morn to 6 eve. 

Mixed, from 6 to 12 eve. 
4th, Negative, from 2 morn to 12 eve. 
5th,' Mixed, from 1 morn to 4 eve. 

Positive, from 5 to 12 eve. 
6th, Mixed, from 1 to 9 morn. 

Positive, from 10 morn to 12 eve. 
Yth, IT Mixed, from 1 morn to 1 eve. 

Positive, from 8 to 12 eve. 
8th, Positive, from 1 to 10 morn. 

Negative, from 11 morn to 12 eve. 

9 th, Negative, from 1 morn to G eve. 

Positive, from 7 to 12 eve. 

10th, Positive, from 5 morn to 12 eve. 

11th, Positive, from 5 morn to 4 eve. 

Negative, from 5 to t2 eve. 
12th, Negative, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 



106 



SCIENTIFIC. 



13th, Positive, from 5 to 10 morn. 

Mixed, from 11 morn to 12 eve. 
14th, IT Negative, from 1 morn to 4 eve. 

Positive, from 5 to 12 eve. 
15th, Positive, from 1 morn to 7 eve. 

Mixed, from 8 to 12 eve. 
16th, Positive, from 1 morn to 3 eve. 

Negative, from 4 to 12 eve. 
I7th, Mixed, from 1 morn to 1 eve. 

Negative, from 2 to 12 eve. 
18th, Positive, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
19th, Positive, from 2 to 11 morn. 

Negative, from 12 noon to 12 eve. 
20th, Negative, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
21st, IT Positive, from 1 to 9 morn. 

Negative, from 10 morn to 12 eve. 
22d, Negative, from 1 morn to 1 eve. 

Positive, from 2 to 12 eve. 
23d, Mixed, from 1 morn to 12 noon. 

Positive, from 12 noon to 12 eve. 
24th, Mixed, from 1 to 8 morn. 

Positive, from 8 morn to 12 eve. 
25th, Negative, from 1 morn to 4 eve. 

Mixed, from 5 to 15 eve. 
26th, Negative, from 1 morn to 12 eve. 
27th, Negative, from 1 morn to 5 eve. 

Positive, from 6 to 12 eve. 
28th, IT Positive, from 1 morn to 4 eve. 

Mixed, from 4 to 5 eve. 

Positive, from 6 to 12 eve. 

SECOND DEPARTMENT. 

In this department the first letter of 
each colored ray is given, instead of the 
word in full, after the words morn, eve. 
They show the angles of the solar spec- 
trum in which the current of reflected 
light that produces the condition is in- 
tercepted. — Thus^ R for the red ray, 
for the orange, etc. Currents intercept- 
ed in the angles of the Y, or R, or G- 
rays tend to a warm and usually fair 
temperature. R, sometimes showery ; 
V or I to cool and damp ; three or four 
times out of five, cloudy or wet. B, and 
often V, to electrical, and more or less 
wind stirring. to variable — in most 
cases cloudy or wet ; but when dry to 
sultry or exciting. Single letters show 
single currents. Double letters show 
combined currents, which usually ope- 
rate longer and with greater force ; often 
so superceding the effects of passing sin- 
gle currents that the latter become only 
modulations in a long dry or wet, warm 
or cool period, induced by the former. 
They can not be calculated so accurately 
as the single currents, but seldom vary 
many hours. , 

Combined currents ending with V or 
I tend to longer, more prominent cool 



periods. With R or G, to warm peri- 
ods. _ When ending with B, V, I, or 0, 
to windy, or cloudy, or stormy periods. 
Periods of greater electrical deficiency 
tend more to vegetable defection, or 
blight, to the cholera, etc. 

All the combined currents tend more 
to electrical disturbances, earthquakes, 
auroras, etc. 

Periods, (.) in the place of letters, show 
currents under investigation. Bouile 
periods, (..) combined currents. £[y- 
phens (-) after letters show confluent 
currents. Commas (,) after the letters 
show positive — apostrophes () negative 
condition. See second department. — 
They also show the force of the inter- 
cepted current. One comma or apostro- 
phe shows weaker, two commas or apos- 
trophes (,, ") stronger currents. 

Many of the weaker changes are per- 
ceptible only by instruments. Those in- 
struments are the Prism, Thermometer, 
Barometer, Hygrometer, and Electrome- 
ter. 

The changes are four minutes earlier 
for each degree of longitude (60 miles) 
west. Difference of latitude in the same 
meridian is immaterial. The dry condi- 
tions are fair, and the damp conditions 
cloudy or wet, at least three or four times 
out of five in the average. When fair, 
the damp conditions diffuse a cool, damp 
sensation through the atmosphere. 

Blanks indicate very weak, or mixed, 
or uncertain conditions. 

IT Indicate Sundays. 

SECOND MONTH, (February,) 1858. 
Time o^cloch. Pay-angle. Tendency. 
1st, At 1 morn YO" damp, windy. 

At 6 morn G' warm. 

At 8 morn R' warm. 

At 9 morn I,, cool. 

At 1 eve V„ cool, damp. 

At 6 eve Y' warm. 

At 12 eve R, warm, dry. 
2d, At 8 morn I, cool, damp. 

At 11 morn G„ warm. 

At 5 eve V cool, damp. 

At 12 eve GR" warm, dry. 
3d, At 9 morn V cool. 

At 6 eve I" cool, damp. 
4th, At 1 morn . — - — 

At 5 morn G' warm. 

At 11 eve R' warm, dry. 
5th, At 4 morn G" warm, dry. 

At 11 morn 

At 4 eve Y" warm, dry. 
6th, At 2 morn B„ wind stfrring. 



SCIENTIFIC 



107 



7th, 

8th, 
9th, 

10th, 
11th, 



12th, 
13th, 



14th, 
15th, 

16th, 

17th, 

18th, 
19th, 

20th, 

21st, 
22d, 



At 5 morn I„ cool. 

At 9 morn V" cool, damp. 

At 10 eve G, warm, dry. 

IT At 8 morn Y, warm, dry. 

At 11 morn I' cool, damp. 

At 1 eve BI" cool, damp, windy. 

At 11 eve G,, warm, dry. 

At 10 morn Y,, warm, dry. 

t 7 eve R, warm, 

t 5 morn GO" damp, windy. 

t 8 morn G' warm. 

t 9 morn 

t 6 eve Y' warm, dry. 

1 12 eve BV„ cool, damp, windy. 

t 4 morn V cool. 

t 11 morn .. warm. 

t 4 eve 0„ 

t 12 eve . 

t 4 morn I" cool, damp. 

t 9 morn V„ cool. 

1 1 eve B- wind stirring. 

t 4 eve 0, 

til morn R" warm, dry. 

t 4 morn 0" damp. 

t 10 morn G- warm, dry. 

t 5 eve Y- warm, dry. 

t 6 eve V" cool, damp. 

t 7 eve .. warm. 

t 10 eve R, warm. 
IT At 2 morn YV"cool,damp,windy. 

t 4 eve I' cool, damp. 

t 8 eve R,, warm. 

t 3 morn V, cool. 

1 12 noon O 

t 7 eve I cool, damp. 

t 11 eve R' warm. 

1 12 eve V,, cool, damp. 

t 3 eve B„ wind stirring. 

t 9 eve GV" cool, windy. 

t 8 morn 0,, 

t 9 morn Y' warm, dry. 

1 1 eve B, wind stirring. 

t 12 eve I" cool, damp. 

t 8 morn G,, warm, dry. 

t 1 eve Y,, warm. 

t 5 eve, end of the zodiacal pe- 
riod, or natural month, 

t 10 eve GR, warm, dry. 

t 1 morn •• windy. 

t 5 morn R- warm, dry. 

t 5 morn G, warm, 

t 8 morn I, cool, damp. 

til morn Y, warm, dry. 

t 12 eve O" damp. 

t 9 morn V- cool, damp. 

t 4 eve (J" warm, dry. 

t 10 eve Y" warm. 
•Vt 9 morn B,, wind stirring. 

t 5 eve BR" windy. 

1 1 eve B' wind .stirring. 

t 3 eve 0, 



At 12 eve G„ warm, diy. 
23d, At 11 morn .. 

At 12 morn V cool. 

At 1 eve R,, warm, dry. 
24th, At 1 morn 01,, cool, damp, windy. 

At 4 morn G' warm. 

At 3 morn I- cool, damp. 

At 9 morn 0" damp. 

At 2 eve V„ cool. 

At 9 eve G, warm, dry. 
25th, At 4 eve R" warjn, dry. 
26th, At 2 morn B" wind stirring. • 

At 2 eve YU cool, windy. 

At 5 eve V" cool, damp. 

At 12 eve GI' cool, damp, windy. 
27th, At 4 eve G" warm, dry. 

At 5 eve Y" warm. 

At 9 eve R,, warm, dry. 
28th, IT At 4 morn .. cool, damp. 

At 7 morn YG- warm. 

At 4 eve I„ cool. 

At 8 eve 0,, damp. 

At 11 eve R' warm. 

At 12 eve V„ cool. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

Cool Periods, longer and more promi- 
nent, are more liable near the 14th, 26th. 

Greater tendency to windy, cloudy or 
stormy periods, or gusts, near the 1st, 
7th, 9th, or 10th, 14th, 17th, 21st, 24th, 
26th. 

Periods more prominently negative 
near the 1st, 3d, 7th, 9th, 14th, 17th. 

Periods of greater electrical deficiency, 
1st to 9th, 11th to 21st. 

Natural tendency of the zodiacal pe- 
riod from the 1st to 18th, damp. From 
the 19th to 28th, the same tendency. 

The electricity supplied by the re- 
flected light of the moon in her increase, 
is more positive. During her decrease, 
more negative. Hence, fruit trees should 
be pruned and vegetation maturing above 
the ground should be sown, etc., be- 
tween the first quarter and the full 
moon. Esculent roots, potatoes, etc., 
should be planted in the decrease of the 
moon. 



U^^" V.VLUABLE Discovery, — About 
three miles from Clear Lake, Napa Co., 
California, and near the Borux lakes, is 
a sulphur bank from twenty to thirty 
acres in extent, and supposed to be thir- 
ty feet thick, sufficiently pure for the use 
of the mint at San Francisco. The sul- 
phur seems to be constantly forming 
from a dam, steam rising over the whole 
surface continually. 



108 



LITERARY. 



FOE THE AMERICAN FAKMBRS' MAGAZINE. 

THE WE ATHEE. 

Appearance of Birds, Flowers, etc., in Nichols, Tioga Co., K Y., in December, 1857. 

By B. Howell. 

Place of Observation, 42 degrees North, on a Diluvial Formation, about AS) feet above the 

Susquehanna River, and 800 feet above tide, according to the survey 

of the New- York and Erie Railroad. 



ec. 


BA.M. 


1P.M. 


9 P.M. 






1 


42 


40 


36 


N. W. 


Cloudy. 


^ 


22 


41 


32 


South 


" 


36 


38 


32 


West 


" 


4 


27 


32 


23 


" 


" 


5 


28 


39 


26 


S.&K 


" 


6 


29 


36 


38 


S. E. 


" 


7 


28 


48 


32 


West 


Clear. 


8 


42 


56 


39 


s. w. 


Cloudy. 


9 


41 


45 


48 


S. E. 


" 


10 


35 


38 


27 


West 


" 


11 


24 


30 


14 


N. W. 


<( 


12 


13 


27 


14 


North 


« 


13 


14 


41 


26 


South 


Clear. 


14 


25 


50 


29 


(( 


Cloudy. 


15 


24 


45 


36 


north 




16 


32 


44 


36 


South 




17 


37 


44 


40 


" 




18 


47 


48 


40 


S. W. 




19 


32 


36 


27 


West 




20 


26 


30 


18 


North 




21 


12 


38 


31 


South 




22 


27 


35 


32 


North 




23 


24 


38 


34 


South 




24 


35 


35 


24 


West 




25 


19 


24 


18 


" 




26 


16 


23 


12 


North 




27 


18 


33 


21 


South 




28 


29 


39 


34 


" 




29 


31 


41 


33 


North 




30 


32 


38 


34 


South 


" 


31 


33 


36 


32 


S.&N. 


" 



Reuabkb. 
Hard rain before day. 



Light snow in the morning. Rain in P. M. 

Clear till 4 P. M. 

Light rain A. M. 

Rain at intervals all day. 

Light snow in the evening. 



Quite hard rain in morning before light. 

Small Aurora seen at 9 P. M. 

Rain all night. Light rain. 
About one-half inch of snow felL 

Light snow. 



[P. M., 3 inches. 
Snow commenced at 7 A. M., and continued till 4 
Drizzling snow between 6 and ten A. M. Light 

rain at 3 P. M., continued all night. 
Quite hard rain A. M. 



it^rarg. 



TO OUR READERS. 

In our last number we promised to 
enliven our pages with a variety of new 
matter, that should be at once amusing 
and instructive ; and we are now about 
to introduce, with that object, a new fea- 
ture into our journal. 

Information for the farmer has ever 
been the leading feature in our pages, 
and will continue for the future to be 
the primary object of it. 

But if improvement in agriculture 
should be the chief aim of an agricultural 



journal, there is another subject equally 
dear to the farmer's heart, as it is also 
of equal importance to the happiness of 
himself and his family. We allude to 
the literature which is sought for and 
read by the younger members of his 
family. 

The influence, for good or for ill, of 
that which constitutes the lighter litera- 
ture of the day, is too well known to 
need comment. We fear we must with 
regret add, that too much of that which 
finds the easiest access into families 



'LITERARY, 



109 



throughout the length and breadth of 
our land, is of a character little calcu- 
lated to improve the morals, or to tend 
towards the cultivation of a high stand- 
ard of self-government, in the young of 
either sex. 

This consideration is not, however, 
new to our age ; and the weight of it has 
from time to time induced men, whose 
literary attainments have rendered them 
luminaries in the world of letters, occa- 
Bionally to endeavor to introduce a better 
class of works, which, whilst they amuse 
the mind, at the same time tend to lead/ 
the morals in the direction of rectitude 
and virtue. To such praiseworthy ef- 
forts do we owe some of that literature 
which has now become part of the clas- 
sics of our language. 

Having by good fortune had a propo- 
sal of similar character made to us, and 
feeling that the ladies of our farm-houses 
have some claim upon oiu* pages, as well 
as on our gallantry, we propose to devote 
a portion of our journal each month to 
this object. ^ And we doubt not that the 
arrangements we have made to secure 
the aid of talent of a high order for this 
department, will insure for it a welcome^ 
from the farmer's wife and daughter that 
will amply reward our exertions. 



THE HERMITESS OF SOUTH 
SALEM. 

[Entered according to Act of Congresa, in the year 
1862, by J. A. Nash, in the Clerk's office of the 
District Court of the United States, for theSouih- 
ern District of New-Yorli.] ' 

AN OKIGINAL TALE OF THE REVOLUTION, 

FOUNDED ON FACT. 

On a bright summer's evening of the 
year seventy-six, a group filled the porch 
of an old farm-house not many miles 
east of New- York Bay, on the shores of 
Long Island. The elder member of the 
party was a farmer, whose help-mate had 
not long before been removed from the 
turmoils of time, to enter upon the peace 
of eternity. Beside him sat his two 
daughters, in whom were centered all 
his hopes and fears. For those were 



times when hopes and fears bore, in 
these parts, close relation to each other. 
A stalwart yeoman of thirty years danced 
on his knee the first pledge of the love, 
which a glance at the joyous counte- 
nance of the elder daughter told she 
bore her husband ; and the anxious look 
of the only remaining person in the cir- 
cle, a young stout countryman just en- 
tering upon man's estate, bespoke the 
interest which the. other daughter ex- 
cited in his bosom, although she seemed 
advanced beyond his age by some few 
years. 

The farmer seemed musing o'er the 
past, and maybe o'er the stining events 
of the present ; and ever and anon a tear 
was seen to fill his downcast eye, and 
trickle down the furrows by which his 
care-worn cheek was channeled. 

After a prolonged silence which none 
of the party appeared inclined to break, 
as if some weighty matters were the sub- 
ject of discussion, the son-in-law at 
length exclaimed : 

" 'Tis better, father, I am sure, that 
you and Sally should return home with 
us. Hannah has now our boy to see to, 
and Sally will, I know, like to help her. 
Our house is big enough for all, and now 
these parts are sure to become battle- 
fields : for our sakes you should come 
amongst us." 

"No, George, no," replied the old 
man ; ." I can not leave the old home- 
stead where I was born and bred, and 
where so many years of blessings have 
been showered down upon my head. 
My girl's mother, my sainted wife, loved 
the place, and I will breathe my last 
where she died. For battles I have no 
fear; if my arm was younger, my coun- 
try should have my strength. As 'tis, 
my weakness is not worth the keeping. 
You, George, will take care of the girls ; 
that is if John here does not relieve you 
of part of the trouble. But Sally will 
not leave me whilst I live. You, my boy, 
must to your farm ; and by-and-bye 
when these storms of war are past, we 



no 



LITERARY. 



may yet spend some hours together in 
this old house." 

The next day separated the friends. 
George Vortin, with his blooming wife 
and child, returned to his Connecticut 
homestead, leaving Butler and his daugh- 
ter in their island home. 

John Frazer, the accepted lover of 
Sarah, being the son of a neighboring 
farmer, was perfectly satisfied with the 
old man's decision ^ for belonging, like 
most of his age, to the militia, his duties 
were of too imperious a character to af- 
ford him much opportunity for " spark- 
ing," and he consequently would by no 
means have approved of the removal of 
his ladylove to a distant abode ; and he 
knew full well that her beloved father's 
word, to her affectionate heart, was law. 
Frazer's duties for the time, however, 
formed no insurmountable barrier to the 
indulgence of his inclinations, for Gen. 
Washington, expecting New- York to be 
attacked, was then making his disposi- 
tions to meet the anticipated event. Al- 
though aware of the proximity of danger 
to those so dear to him, Frazer knew 
that he should have early intelligence of 
the movements of the enemy ; and con- 
sequently he felt no distrust of his power 
to give them timely notice to remove 
from the scene in the event of serious 
operations supervening. 

Some weeks passed on after the sepa- 
ration of the friends, and the excitement 
of anticipated troubles had nearly sub- 
sided into the confidence of security, 
when in the haze of early morning the 
heavy tread of distant footsteps alarmed 
the dogs that guarded the homestead, 
and awoke Sarah Butler from her morn- 
ing's dream. Throwing open her window 
she looked out to speak to them. Her 
well known voice the dogs obeyed ; but 
their silence revealed to her ear the cause 
of their vigilance. Friends or foes, she 
knew not which, but strangers were at 
hand. 

Scarcely had Butler, aroused by his I 
daughter, glanced at the men who now | 



had approached within a short distance of 
house, when the full measure of the mise- 
ry that awaited him was disclosed. They 
were a party of the enemy's troops. A 
hurried parley confirmed the worst fears , 
of the inmates ; the door was burst open, 
and the half-mad soldiers brutalized the 
once happy home ! 

The wail of female anguish, the aged 
cry for mercy, were answered by the 
ribald jest and withering jeer. A bay- 
onet was raised to pierce old Butler 
through, when a musket shot from with- 
out suddenly laid low the arm that held 
it. The soldiers rushed out as quickly 
as they had entered, and for a few mo- 
ments Butler and his daughter were left 
alone with the dead body of the fallen 
man. 

" Daughter," said the old man, " I feel 
my hour is come. I see Frazer without ; 
doubtless he has brought us this relief; 
they will not kill you, and Frazer will 
protect you. I must shortly fall, if only 
to avenge the dead at our feet. Grieve 
not for me — I shall be happy ; but trust 
in God my girl through life'; and " 

A shot from outside performed its 
deadly ofiice, and Butler fell and breath- 
' ed his last. 

At the same moment Sarah Butler 
found herself in the grasp of one whose 
regimentals showed him to be of that . 
rank that should indicate the character 
of gentlemen, a protector of innocence, a 
lover of mercy. Was he this ? No — that 
he was — 'tis not in language to tell. Sa- 
vage he was not, for he was civilized. 
Slave he was not, for he was free. Brute 
he was not, for he was man. Devil he 
was not, for he was human. What was 
HE ? Let heaven declare, for words can 
not at that day when 

" We shall know even as we are known." 
******* 

******* 
The sun rose in its full majesty upon 
a cloudless sky on the morning follow- 
ing the dread day that closed the life of 
honest Butler. The sound of man's 



LITERARY 



111 



cursed artillery was unheard, and the 
young birds of the last spring rejoicing 
in their youth, carolled forth the song of 
pleasure and of love. 
• Awaking from a swoon, o'erwhelmed 
with shame, half conscious of existence, 
poor Sarah Butler found herself stretch- 
ed upon the straw of her homestead 
bam. Weighed down by misery and 
grief, the anguish of her soul almost un- 
nerved her from the power of motion. 
Mistrusting her distracted and confused 
recollection of the occurrences of the pre- 
ceeding day, and doubting each phase, 
save oiie of the scenes in which she had 
borne a part, she dragged her weary 
limbs to the window that looked on her 
cherished home ! Could she believe it ? 
A smoking pile of blackened walls and 
half charred timbers only remained of 
the house in which she first saw the light 
of day. An involuntary shriek burst 
from her lips, and she again sunk into 
unconsciousness. 

A few days after the preceding events, 
"Washington saw fit to alter his tactics, 
and to withdraw his troops from Long 
Island; and rumor, with its many 
tongues, quickly conveyed to George 
Vortin and his wife the unwelcome in- 
telligence that the enemy had carried fire 
and sword into the homesteads on the 
coast of Long Island. George forthwith 
sought the camp, where he learned from 
the lips of his friend Frazer, whom he 
found in hospital disabled by a mus- 
ket wound in the head, the dreadful 
story of his father-in-law's death. 

" And where is Sally ?" cried George. 
"Alas! I know not," replied his 
friend. " I fell insensible from this 
cursed shot-wound, whilst springing for- 
ward to rescue her from the grasp of a 
hellish officer who had seized upon her, 
and I know no more. As soon as I re- 
covered my reason, I begged my com- 
rades to go seek her, or ascertain her 
fate ; but our troops having been with- 
drawn from the Island, their attempts 
were futile. My cup of misery is full. 
May God protect her !" 



Resolved to learn something of his 
sister-in-law, George spent many days in 
fruitless inquiries and abortive attempts 
to communicate with friends on Long 
Island. In despair, he at length was 
about reluctantly to give up the search, 
when he chanced to meet an old ac- 
quaintance who was a fisherman on the 
Sound. He informed him that some 
days after the affray at Butlers, Sarah 
had been to his house on the coast when 
he was from home ; and that his part- 
ner had at her request taken her at night 
across the Sound to the mland shore. 
Rejoiced at this intelligence, George not 
doubting that her object was to get to 
his farm, made his way home with all 
dispatch ; having on his way afforded 
some consolation to poor Frazer, by 
communicating the information he had 
received. 

Contrary to his expectations, Vortin 
and his wife heard nothing of Sarah. 
Each week that passed held forth to 
them hopes, only to be disappointed. By 
slow degrees Frazer, whose anguish of 
mind tended materially to delay recovery 
from his wound, at length was sufficient- 
ly convalescent to permit his removal 
firom the camp, and Vortin took him to 
his home; for already did his wife regard 
him as her brother. 

How mercifully is the future before us 
in this life, hidden from our gaze ! How 
beautiful the dispensation which causes 
the slow course of time to assuage griefs 
that 'tis not in our power to avoid, or 
otherwise, to relieve. One by one come 
our joys ; one by one our sorrows ! Did 
either come in mass, poor humanity 
must equally break down beneath the 
burden. But when tempered by the 
calm self-possession of confiding hope in 
Him whose promise can not fail, how 
joyous pass the happy hours of prosper- 
ity — how serenely do we bow the head 
and yield submission to the blasts of ad- 
versity I 

So it was at George Vortin's farm- 
house. Ilalf-expecting hope for many 



112 



LITERARY. 



months sustained the drooping and 
agonized feelings of Hannah Vortin, 
and the no-less wounded spirit of the 
wounded soldier : until at length they 
almost persuaded themselves that poor 
Sarah was released from her earthly- 
trials, and though snatched from them, 
was then — at rest. 

Time rolled on. George Vortin pros- 
pered. Frazer, whose wound, although 
healed, had produced a marked influence 
upon his constitution, was long in recov- 
ering his strength. The ties of friend- 
ship between him and his kind hosts had 
been sealed by events too appalling to 
be evanescent; and thence had sprung 
up bonds of affection which precluded 
the thought of separation. The children 
of the Vortins, which were now many, 
had of their own accord appropriated to 
Frazer the cognomen of " Uncle John" — 
an appellation which all appeared to ap- 
prove. Still amidst sufficient prosperity 
to supply more than the wants of all, and 
the enjoyment of many of those cheer- 
ful hours which it is the peculiar privi- 
lege of children to impart to those 
around them, there was a pensive sad- 
ness that overshadowed the household, 
and told the observer that something yet 
was wanting to make that household 
happy. The truth was, the uncertainty 
attending the fate of Sarah Butler still 
weighed upon all. 

* - * * * * * 

Thirty years and more had passed 
away, and some members of the family 
of the Vortins had grown up to man's 
estate. The eldest daughter, Hannah, 
was wooed and won by Jim Smithson, a 
young farmer at Ridgefield, twenty miles 
from her parent's farm. Settled down 
some months in her novel station, she 
urged " Uncle John" to visit her new 
home — an invitation which he was not 
slow to accept. For having given up all 
idea of married life himself, the children 
of his friend had long been regarded by 
him as his own, and he divided with 
their parents the cares and pleasures 
that attended them. 



On a fair morning in the fall of 18—, 
Frazer set out on his old grey pony to 
pay his promised visit at Ridgefield. A 
small valise strapped behind his saddle 
carried his wardrobe ; and at the pora- 
mel were sundry small parcels of crea- 
ture comforts, intended as presents from 
" home" to the new married couple. 

Since the Revolution, Frazer had been 
but little of a traveler. The ardor and 
elasticity of youth had been softened 
down at an early age by his physical 
and mental sufferings ; and his time had 
been devoted to the service of his friend 
Vortin on his farm, and to the indul- 
gence of the wishes and wants, whether 
real or fancied, of the wife and children. 
For in such occupations it was that he 
found the greatest comfort, and a relief 
from thoughts and regrets that too fre- 
quently would intrude upon his leisure 
hours. 

Having thus remained almost constant- 
ly on the farm, out of the reach of the 
turmoils of the world, and of the excite- 
ment consequent on a more active life, 
he knew little of the scenes around him, 
save those disclosed by the weekly news- 
paper. Beyond the homestead circle, 
however, he had no wants ; and the ab- 
sence or presence of more extensive ac- 
quaintance with men and things was 
to him a matter of equal indifference. 

Arrived at Ridgefield, Frazer was over- 
whelmed by the multitudinous series of 
welcomes that awaited him; for his young 
hostess was a warm-hearted creature, 
full of buoyant spirits, bright hopes, and 
affectionate feelings, which rendered it 
out of the question with her to receive 
her old friend without a reiterated redu- 
plication of every endearing epithet that 
her vocabulary could suggest. 

In those days, before railroads had 
solved the problem of annihilating space, 
and made modern philosophy doubt the 
truth of the axiom that nature abhors a 
vacuum, (since some are dreaming of a se- 
ries of subterranean vacuum tubes as the 
best medium for locomotion) — in those 



LITERARY 



113 



days, the entrance upon the duties of life 
of anew married couple in Ridgefield was 
no ordinary, every-day occurrence, but 
an event of importance ; one which, 
as soon as its possibility was bruited 
abroad, caused an excitement and com- 
motion among the middle aged aud more 
aged members of the female community 
there resident, which showed that at 
least they were deeply interested parties. 

The recent wedding had produced a 
more than ordinary amount of this inte- 
rest ; for, the coterie of the district, 
that, by some invisible, but doubt- 
less well organized authoi'ity, exercised 
a considerable control over the due coup- 
ling together of the juvenile branches of 
their generation, had been, for once, ut- 
lerly at fault in disposing of the bride- 
groom to their satisfaction. If the truth 
must be told, he chose to select a wife 
for himself, instead of having one select- 
ed for him ; a circumstance which, con- 
trary to the innocently ignorant con- 
clusions of some people, was, by the 
Ridgefield Sociable-marriage-and-suita- 
ble-settlement Committee that consti- 
tuted the coterie aforesaid, deemed to be 
subversive of that course which these 
ladies had, as the result of their united 
wisdom, chalked out for the onward 
progress of civilization. 

True it was, that in many cases the 
committee declined to interfere to select, 
or recommend a partner for life to some 
poor wight But then in all such cases 
the unhappy individual, somehow, al- 
ways happened to be a poor wight ! In 
no case within the legal memory of man, 
(which in B^nglish law means the time of 
good King Richard II., and in American 
law, that of some other period either 
before or after,) was the contingency 
known, of a young man, well to do, 
either present or in prospect, remaining a 
bachelor for want of being provided, 
through the care of the committee, with 
a " suitable partner." 

The exertions made to secure this end 
were extraordinary ; and it can only be 
8 



attributable to the continued persever- 
ance with which they were prosecuted, 
that the result was attained. The system, 
however, was so well arranged, and the 
energy of the committee so unremitted, 
that miscarriage was usually impossible. 
Yet, like most unknown discoveries, the 
means employed were simple, and con- 
sequently less likely to become deranged 
in operation. A principal method was, 
the selection of matrons, as members of 
the Committee, who had themselves a 
great number of eligible daughters. For, 
so disinterested was the Committee in 
the performance of its self-imposed du- 
ties, that there was never an instance of 
any member refusing to consent to her 
daughter's union with the young yeoman 
assigned to her. Whether there is or 
not ground for supposing that in 
the development of their anti-malthusian 
practices, certain members allowed their 
feelings of self-sacrifice to urge the se- 
lection of their own daughters, in prefer- 
ence to those of others, for a youth 
whose numerous acres or recently 
acquired fortune pointed him out as 
requiring immediate provision, is doubt- 
ful. The best and most praiseworthy 
acts of us all are liable to misconstruc- 
tion ; to say nothing of the malignant 
acrimony occasioned sometimes by dis- 
appointed hopes in others ; and it is not 
to be supposed that the benevolent exer- 
tions of the Ridgefield Sociable-mar- 
riage-aud-sui table-settlement Committee 
should altogether escape calunmies and 
aspersions, to which all philanthropic 
eSbrts are exposed ! 

With such elements of concord and 
discord at work, it may readily be be- 
lieved that the new married couple 
would not settle down into that peaceful 
quietude supposed to be the fitting phase 
of old married life, without their acts 
and deeds, their existing condition, and 
future prospects being fully and duly 
revised, considered, and adjudicated upon 
by the benevolent body to which the 
preceding paragraph refers. 



114 



LITERARY. 



The result of the Committee's deliber- 
ation on the subject can only be presumed 
from its effects, inasmuch as secrecy was 
a point that was deemed by this benev- 
olent institution requisite to the success 
of its decisions. Nevertheless every 
now and then, through the confidential 
disclosures of Committee mamas to anx- 
ious and expectant daughters, inklings 
would eke out of the prospects of those 
who for the time, were the objects of the 
Committee's proceedings. Judging from 
rumors originating in such sources, the 
prevalent opinion was, that as the gen- 
tleman had slipt through their fingers, 
the Committee thought the better thing 
would be to make a virtue of a necessi- 
ty, and admit the new married folks to 
take their place in the village circle, with 
the full enjoyment of the inestimable 
privileges to be derived from the counte- 
nance and sanction of the RidgefieLd 
Sociable - marriage - and - suitable-settle- 
ment Committee. A resolution, the una- 
nimous vote in favor of which, was said 
to have been specially influenced by the 
opinion expressed by one of the mem- 
bers, (whose gi-eat grandfather's brother 
had been a physician,) "that she should 
not think it likely that a poor, young 
creature like Jim Smithson's wife could 
live long, for she looked as white and 
liverish as a mushroom that was sick 
with chills and fever, and who could tell 
but Jim might afore long want another 
wife." Whether this dictum was the 
concentrated effusion of medical skill or 
not it is needless at present to inquire. 
Like all other legal decisions we have 
only to deal with it as we find it, without 
going into the reasons, if any there were, 
by which the tribunal in question was 
guided in arriving at it. 

Jim Smithson himself was by no 

means unconscious of the solicitude that 

the Ridgfield Sociable-marriage-and-suit- 

able-settlement Committee had manifest- 

■ - his behalf; seeing that having 

own counsel, and courted his 

rt at some distance from Ridge- 



field, unknown to the Committee, that 
body had, for some months previously to 
his marriage, commenced their prelimi- 
nary attack upon his bachelorship. But 
these preliminary advances were, in this, 
as in all tbe proceedings of the Commit- 
tee, made with the caution which from 
so accomplished a body of tactitians 
might naturally be expected. The 
modus operandi of attack was varied, 
both as regards means and persons ; but 
the object was in all of them intended to 
converge to one point, namely, the work- 
ing a conviction upon Jim's mind, that 
he wanted a wife. Had they been aware 
that Jim had himself arrived at that con- 
viction, doubtless the ladies would have 
reserved their ammunition for use in the 
next step of their siege operations, and 
would have advanced boldly to the 
breach in his heart, with the view to fill 
it up with a wife that their mature judg- 
ment found suitable for him. Jim, how- 
ever, saved them that trouble, and, 
moreover, was on one occasion heard to 
declare, when returning home late at 
night from a social party given by a 
near neighbor, to which he had gone 
upon a most pressing invitation, that the 
"canting old toads were an infernal set 
of scandal-mongers, and that if they 
thought to hook him they were con- 
foundedly mistaken." 

Whether this hasty but impetuously 
expressed opinion related to the ladies of 
the Ridgefield Sociable-marriage-and-sui- 
table-settlement Committee or not, can 
not be 'positively asserted ; or if it did, 
whetli er it took its rise rather in the effects 
of over-excitement, or an impudent ad- 
'Vance upon him made by that bodv, than 
from a well considered review of the cha- 
racters of the members forming it, is 
equally uncertain. However this may be, 
Jim Smithson went to no more parties 
from that day to his wedding day ; and 
consequently it is to be assumed that he 
saw no reason to change, upon reflection, 
the opinion that his evening's potations 
had induced him to give utterance to 
upon the subject, 

[to be coktinued.] 



LITERARY 



115 



ENGLAND AND INDIA. 

BY AN ENGLISHMAN. 

Mr. Editor : — " Audi alteram par- 
tem" is a maxim which must be so fami- 
liar to you as a citizen of a country that 
claims to set an example of freedom to 
the world, that I conceive the bare refer- 
ence to it is enough to secure for me the 
insertion of the following reply, altliough 
it be to obversations of your own ; which 
I am free to believe had their origin in 
(allow me to say) kindly feelings rather 
than sound judgment. I should how- 
ever not trouble you with this letter, did 
I not think and believe that anything 
that tends to lessen England and her 
citizens in the eyes of American citi- 
zens is, if untrue^ a positive injury to 
both countries. 

In the Monthly Review of the Amer- 
ican Farmers' Magazine for January, 
you say in allusion to England, " Her 
men in power have thought it necessary 
to be more revoltingly cruel than the 
sepoys themselves." And you proceed 
to characterize the fact of sepoys being 
blown from the cannon's mouth, as an 
exercise of " implacable revenge" by 
" Christian England." 

Now " implacable revenge," exercised 
hj' a " ChrhWavi'' individual , is undoubt- 
edly a very wicked and heinous offence, 
which even the impulsive outbreak of 
passion can not justify. How much 
greater, therefore, must it become, if it 
has been, as you assert, exercised delib- 
erately, and by the authorities of a great 
nation ? 

Your accusation, then, is a heavy one 
indeed, against my country, and the 
land of your forefathers. You will not 
think me wrong, therefore, in seeking to 
satisfy you and your readers, that it is 
made in error. But first — one remark — 
you say " more revolting." Do you call 
to mind that the sepoys, who all admit 
have been well treated, and fed and 
paid better than either English or Amer- 
ican soldiers are, commenced their pro- 



ceedings by butchering their officers in 
cold blood? No one yet has contested 
the fact that the conduct of the Europe- 
an officers has uniformly been kind to 
the men. Let that pass, however, and 
assume the contrary if jou please. Do 
you call to mind that they more than 
butchered their officers' wives, daughters, 
and children, and committed such atroc- 
ities upon the females, that language 
adequate to portray these facts could not 
be printed for the public eye? Would 
you think "blowing from the cannon's 
mouth" more revolting than such atroci- 
ties committed on your own wife or 
daughter. I need not tell you that the 
proper object of punishment for crime 
consists not in vengeance, but in inflict- 
ing such punishment on the criminal as, 
whilst it is not unjust to him, is the best 
calculated to deter others from the conv- 
mission of similar offences. And this 
latter object, on reflection, you will per- 
ceive to be, in all communities, of para- 
mount importance. That the punish- 
ment was not unjust to such demons in 
human shape, (which is not too strong 
an epithet for any man capable of such 
conduct to woman,) I take for granted, 
and you, in your remaiks, admit it. Let 
us see, then, how it was calculated to 
effect the more important object of de- 
terring others. And that leads me to 
the pith 6f my letter, and at the same 
time explains why that particular mode 
of punishment was inflicted. 

The superstition of the sepoy induces 
him to believe that the burial of his body 
apart from the remains of others not of his 
own religion, is essential to his happiness 
in a future state. This mode of death 
rendered the probability of such a burial 
highly improbable, if not impossible ; 
and for that reason it was selected. If 
in itself the mode of death inflicted was 
of a lingering kind, calculated to torture 
the criminal, I would condemn it as 
" revolting" and as cruel. But the one 
under consideration is not so. On the 
contrary it is more instantaneous and 



116 



EDITOR'S TABLE 



less painful than even hanging or the 
guillotine. For although the latter of 
those two is instantaneous enough, that 
from the cannon's mouth must be un- 
known evon by an instant's conscious- 
ness. And that in anticipation it may 
be feared or dreaded, appears to me, as 
a preventive to crime in others, to be a 
recommendation for its adoption. Whilst 
we know how fallacious are the sepoy's 
fears as to its effect on his future state, 
so far as the mode of death is concerned, 
we avail ourselves of those fears to 
operate upon the conduct of his fellows ; 
and if in so doing we succeed in sup- 
pressing crime, a benefit of no insignifl- 
< cant amount is the result. 

Mercy is a bright jewel in the crown 
of justice ; but no injustice is so great as 
that which confounds the duty of the 
judge with the province of well-directed 
clemency. Stern justice towards un- 
doubted guilt, is the surest pledge that can 
be given to insure the greatest happiness 
to the greatest number — an axiom which 
I should like to see acted upon by Amer- 



icans towards miscreants from Europe, 
who too often require it in this country, 
as I would have it acted upon in India 
and elsewhere, be the offender of what 
country he may. 

This son of England has defended his 
mother right gallantly, and we praise 
him for it. If any pen could maintain 
the honor of England his could. He has 
given us a pretty hard blow, but we are 
not knocked down nor stunned, nor are 
we fully convinced that he really meant to 
hurt us very badly. We even doubt whe- 
ther he himself would not rather that 
England should learn the art of ruling and 
Christianizing the Indians without kill- 
ing them first. It will be seen that the 
whole force of his argument turns upon 
the point of inflicting unheard-of severi- 
ties for the sake of their moral influence. 
This looks a little too much like doing 
evil that good may come ; and we have 
something to say about it. But as our 
thoughts may not be worth much, we 
defer them to a less prominent place in 
this number. — Ed. 



M\\m^ M>Mt 



OUR THOUGHTS ON VMIIOUS 
SUBJECTS. 

Invention. — "Wonderful," we often 
hear it said, " are the inventions of the 
age." With us the wonder is right the 
other way. Natiu-e has a mighty store 
of resources and powers yet undevelop- 
ed, all capable of benefitting the human 
race, but as yet lying dormant for the 
want of an inventor, like Watt, Fitch, 
or Fulton to harness them and set them 
to work. But for fogy adherence to old 
ways, a witless reluctance to new, and a 
grin for all who strive after improve- 
ments, we should have made more pro- 
gress than we have. Twelve years ago 
wise senators were afraid to give up the 
twenty-five cent postage and take the 



three cent ; and some are so intolerably 
stupid that they would fear to give up 
the three cents and take two now. It 
took six thousand years for mankind to 
learn how to plow ; and yet the pro- 
blem is not more than half solved. They 
would have learned it sooner if they had 
been wiUing to try different ways, to 
see which was the best, or even to with- 
hold their senseless laugh at any who 
were disposed to try something new. 

"/ would not live alway, I ash not 
to stay^ A beautiful old hymn is this. 
As pointing to an onward, higher des- 
tiny, we love it. But we do not believe 
there is much use in finding fault with 
our present state. This is a pretty good 
world after aU, In fact it is an excellent 



EDITOR'S TABLE. 



117 



w«rld, so long as there is enough to do. 
Man's happiness lies in action. Don't 
be grumbling, but go to work. If your 
own fortune is not yet made, go to work 
and make it. ff it is, help somebody 
else. There are enough that need. 
Strike in somewhere, and do some good. 
The man that docs good, gets the best 
part of the reward. To do good and to 
get good are about the same thing. La- 
ziness is the greatest enemy, after self- 
ishness, to human welfare. Fudge of 
the dignity of living without active em- 
ployment of some kind — of the hand, or 
the head, or better of both ; for yourself, 
or your friends, or somebody. To be 
useful is the only true dignity. It is 
the only way to be really happy. 
"Count that day lost," etc. 

Moral Influence of Capital Punish- 
ment Illustrated. — " England," says the 
sepoy, who has learned a little English 
from his betters, "has compelled the 
East Indians to grow opium these fifty 
years, at a price too low to keep soul 
and body together. By the all-pervading 
network of her laws has she effected 
this, and is likely to effect it permanent- 
ly. She has compelled the Chinese, at 
the cannon's mouth, to take this opium 
at an enormous profit, pocketing by the 
operation from thirty to fifty millions a 
year. Moreover ^she has taxed our pri- 
vilege of making salt from oui' own wa- 
ters, till we have long ago learned to eat 
our meat without salt. The poor In- 
dians may not produce food fit for their 
own stomachs, but must produce what 
will fill Englands coffers. It is getting 
no better, but rather worse. Let us kill 
off a few hundred of the English, men, 
women and children, inflicting on them 
every possible cruelty and disgrace. 
This, it is true, is rather savage for a 
race so far civilized as we are, after a 
century of England's schooling; but 
then we do it for sake of the moral ef- 
fect ; it is that England n\ay be driven 
home to attend to her own business and 
leave us to ours. Surely the end sanc- 
tifies the means." 



England says, "These sepoys have 
outraged all decency ; we must riddle 
them; stretch their necks; blow them 
up ; avail ourselves of their superstitions 
to make vengeance doubly terrific ; kill 
the king's sons to rid ourselves of a pre- 
sent enemy ; let the king live, as he is 
too old to do us much harm, but butcher 
his grandsons, lest they should grow in- 
to powerful enemies. It is all for sake 
of the moral effect; it is that the 150,- 
000,000 Indians may never again dare 
complain. The end sanctifies the means. 
Swing the match, let go the drop, bore 
the wretches with cold lead, and all In- 
dia will be Christianized." 

Which has the best of the argument ? 
We say, the sepoy, by so much as he is 
the less educated and Christianized. 
We do not believe that God requires 
England to Christianize India, unless 
she can compass it by more Christian 
means. 

We have spent much time among the 
English people, have enjoyed their hos- 
pitalities, seen their wonderful improve- 
ments in agriculture, heard their expres- 
sions of friendship for our own country, 
and we thought we loved them ; but if 
they do not put forth a long, loud, un- 
blanching condemnation of the late do- 
ings of their government, why then we 
don't love them so well as we thought we 
did. And if England can notgovern India 
better than she has of late, or ever did, 
we do not want her foot this side of the 
Atlantic ; and we would be a fillibustcr, 
badly as we dislike to fight, not having 
an over stock of courage, to drive her oflT. 

Lest our opinion of the manner in 
which England has governed India 
should seem harsh, we will refer the 
reader to that of a distinguished clergy- 
man, Rev. Mr. Bellow, of St. Phillip's 
Church, Regent street, London, and late 
chaplain io Calcutta, one of the most 
popular divines in England. His ser- 
mon on the day of National Humiliation, 
Oct. 7th, has been printed, and is excit- 
ing attention on the short comings of 
England towards India. 



118 



E D I T O R'S TABLE 



" I speak now of us," savs he, "as a 
nation ; and I think it is impossible to 
say how far this terrible sound of battle 
and of great destruction might have been 
averted if we had earnestly fulfilled our 
moral and religious obligations towards 
our Indian empire. Possessing so great 
a realm, we have nationally been indif- 
ferent to it. We have left it for a cen- 
tury, regarding it as a mere mercantile 
interest, and forgetting that we had in 
charge the bodies and souls of millions 
of our fellow-creatures. To those inter- 
ested in India, the one subject of inter- 
est has been Indian stock, and the one 
subject of indifference has been the In- 
dian people. Verily, and indeed, we 
have sown the wind, and we are now 
reaping the whirlwind. England! what 
hast thou done for those children of the 
East ? How has thou fulfilled thy mis- 
sion there ? By self-aggrandizement, by 
selfish appropriation and annexation. 
Year by year have we withdrawn mil- 
lions of money from that land, levied by 
taxation upon the people, for which we 
have given them back — nothing !" 

The above, we suppose, is not all to 
be taken as rhetorical flourish. It should 
be considered, however, that Dr. Bellow 
was addressing a London audience. 
Some of the government functionaries 
may have been on hand ; and it is al- 
ways better to say plain things in men's 
faces than behind their backs. Besides, 
Dr. Bellow's object was not so much to 
enunciate exact truth about the past, as 
to arouse the government and the people 
to a just sense of their duty for the fu- 
ture. But if we take as strictly true one- 
half of what he says, and we are willing 
to make that allowance in behalf of Eng- 
land, still there is enough left to confirm 
our bad opinion of British rule abroad, 
and to induce the wish that it may be 
Tery scarce on this continent. — Ed. 



Book Notices, etc. — Philips, Samp- 
son & Co., Boston, have just published 
Autobiographical Sketches and Recol- 
lections During Thirty-five Years Re- 
sidence IN New-Orleans, hy Theodore 
Clapp, a book replete with personal in- 
cident and rich in historic reminiscences, 
adapted to interest and instruct. Buy 



it and read it, but do not adopt its re- 
ligious views, unless you find them to 
accord with scripture and reason. Shut- 
ting our eyes and ears to all but what 
our own sect say is no liberal search af- 
ter truth, and we Americans, liberal in 
other respects, ought to be ashamed of 
it. 419 pages, 12mo. 

Philips, Sampson & Co. have also just 
published Why and What am I ; the 
Confessions of an Inquirer ; Part 1st. 
Heart Experience, or the Education of 
THE Emotions ; By James Jackson Jarves. 
This also appears to be a book well filled 
with anecdote, personal incident, and re- 
flection. From a brief view of here and 
there a page, we should think it might 
be rather bewitching, but how instruc- 
tive we can not say. 320 pages, 12mo. 

TicTcnor & Field, Boston, have issued 
Twin Roses ; A Narrative, hy Anna 
Cora Ritchie, Author of ^'■Autobiogra- 
phy of an Actress,^'' '•'■ Mimic Life," ^'■Ar- 
mand," etc. ; a sprightly and agreea- 
ble narrative, we should judge, from a 
hurried perusal. 273 pages, 12mo. 

TicTcnor & Field have also issued 
Stories and Legends of Travel and 
History, by Grace Greenwood. The 
name of the book encourages, and the 
soubriquet of the authoress quite assures 
us, that this is a good book, well worth 
the price and the time. 290 pages, 12mo. 

The same firm has also issused The 
Plant Hunters ; or. Adventures among 
THE Himalaya Mountains, by Captain 
Mayne Reid, Author of the ^'■Desert 
Ilome^'' " The Yagers^'' etc., etc., etc. 
The student of geography can find much 
topographical information, and the stu- 
dent of human nature a pretty good 
share of fun in this book. 353 pages, 
12mo. 

The New- York Musical Review is 
published every other Saturday, by Ma- 
son Brothers, New-York, and presents a 
rich amount and variety of musical mat- 
ter. Dr. Lowell Mason, Wm. B. Brad- 
bury, George F. Root, and other of the 



EDITOR 'S TABLE 



119 



most eminent musicians of the country, 
are among its regular contributors, each 
number containing more or less from the 
pen of one or all of them. A very use- 
ful and instructive feature of The Re- 
view is its "Answers to Correspondents." 
All questions on musical subjects, as to 
its theory or practice, are carefully an- 
swered, often at length. The Review 
also collects musical news from all 
sources, and keeps its readers well post- 
ed as to what is doing in the musical 
world. Each number also includes sev- 
eral pages of new and popular music. 
In this department, it is announced in 
the present number, will be presented 
hereafter the gems from the modern 
operas performed in New-York. Terms 
of The Review : One copy per annum, 
$1 ; tive copies, %i ; eight copies, $6 ; 
ten copies, $7 ; twenty copies, $12. 

Prof. Mapes' Working Farmer, 24 
pages quarto, 3 columns on a page, and 
always filled with matter of a very high 
order, both the original and the selected, 
comes to us bright, readable, and in- 
structive as ever, and we think a little 
more so. 

Prof Mapes and his once pupils, but 
now full grown co-laborers. Vail, Olcott, 
Lowe, Waring, and others, are doing a 
capital work for soil culture, and we have 
not a pnrticle of that envy which can 
deter us from saying so, 

A prominent trait in the WorMng 
Farmer is, that while it is largely and 
richly original, it republishes the best 
and most reliable articles from the agri- 
cultural literature of this and other coun- 
tries, which is just as much as to say 
that its conductor has the good J>ense, 
when he has given his readers the best 
of his own and of his co-laborers' 
thoughts, not to keep his and their pens 
running, till they must needs run slops, 
but to give instead such of the masterly 
productions of other pens, as his readers 
would not be likely otlicrwise to see. 

The price of the Working Farmer is 
one dollar a year, a trifle less perhaps in 



proportion to the amount of matter than 
ours, because we publish in a more ex- 
pensive form. But we are bound to ex- 
pend on ours its whole income ; to en- 
large it as soon as the pay will possibly 
admit ; and to make it not only as good 
as any other, but at least as large in 
proportion to the price. 

American Farmers want good journals 
of their business ; they want them at a 
reasonable price, and we will do our part, 
as Prof Mapes has, to meet their wants. 

By arrangements made with the edi- 
tor of the WorMng Farmer^ we will fur- 
nish the current volumes of that journal 
and ours for $2.50 advanced to this oflBce. 

The College Journal of Medical Sci- 
ence for January is on our table, well 
filled as usual with instructions for the 
prevention and cure of disease. It is a 
valuable monthly in its way. Cincin- 
nati, 0. 

The Scientific American greets U6 
promptly each week, a work of great 
value to the mechanics of the cities and 
laige villages, to whom we would hear- 
tily commend it, while we as heartily 
and as honestly commend our magazine 
to the mechanics of rural districts, who 
in addition to their trade, are cultivating 
a piece of land, however small. The 
sixteenth of an acre cultivated by a 
man who reads an agricultural journal 
well pays its price in extra produce. 
We mean not to omit mechanical mat- 
ter in our future numbers. ,It is too im- 
portant not to find a place in an agricul- 
tural journal ; important even for the 
farmer. But were we a mechanic of a 
progressive spirit, with no land to till, 
we would have a work on our own busi- 
ness. It is with this spirit that we cheer- 
fully commend our neighbor, the Scien- 
tific American. 



DON'T BLAME US; 

For we are receiving so many just 
such letters as the following, that we 
feel greatly encouraged, and want our 



120 



E D I T O R'S T A B L E 



friends to. .eiyoy with us the reading of 
one as a sample. , 

;. Pquohkeepsie, Jan. 6th, 1858. 

Me. Na^H'-t3ie :-!^Among the valuable 
agricultujal works which W^ read, we 
think yours one of the moSit valuable 
and reliable;, and we think it iqjproves 
in value every year. Such articles as 
your " Division of Labor" in the Novem- 
ber number ought to be read by every 
man, not merely everry, farruej;, in ,the 
Union. Ijt will be read by the. readers 
of our political papers of this place. 

But we have read all itg articles for 
the last six months without ihaving paid 
for the pleasure and, pyofift derived frojn 
so doing, and thinking (as doubtless you 
do) that it is 'time to I'At tjp[ we inclose 
two dollar^. Respectfully yourtef ^'- • 

''''' ' '' ■'■&. &'J. CASpkNTEK." 



■''■''' ANOTHER. -■ -:i;:;; ' 
Mb. Editor: — T got yesterday your 
January numbers Wheu it .was first put 
in my hand, the alteration in the title and 
general appearance from my old friend 
' ' the Plough; Loom and AnviU' induced 
me to think that a wrongjournal had been 
sent tome in mistake. But the man 
plowing on the cover soon told me it was 
all right, and that it was my old friend 
with a new face. 

Upon looking it over I found the alter- 
ations were not confined to the outside, 
but that the inside was not only altered 
but much improved, which is not, by the 
by, the case with all alterations, 

Why, Mr. Editor, we country: fogies 
do not pretend to be great critics, but 
we know what we like, and my, friend 
and neighbor Smith and I used some- 
times toi! say that we thought there 
was some old fogyism .elsewhere besides 
with us. But now I find ; you have 
waked up with the new year, and some 
of your New Year's good cheer seems to 
be coming out through your pages ; for 
somehow it seems to me and my friend 
Smith that there is more than one .spice 
of Young America in some of your arti- 
cles this month. . . y .^i^^nxii .■ 



Well, go on friend as you have begun. 
I am going round to my neighbors, and 
if I don't get you some new subscribers 
in our village before this month is out, 
my name is not Jacob Patchum. 



PUBLIC LANDS FOR AGRICUL- 
TURAL EDUCATION. 

Such, in brief, is the voice of Michi- 
gan. She has laid broad and deep the 
foundations for an agricultural college. 
She has contributed nobly towards its 
permanent existence and wide-spread 
usefulness. It is already in operation ; 
wise and earnest men have it in charge ; 
and its fruits are even now demonstrated 
to be good. But with greater means, 
she could render the fruits more wide- 
."^preading and more abundant. At this 
stage she petitions Congress for aid. 
Could a more fitting use be made of the 
public lands? We think not; and 
though we do not claim to be over and 
above constitutionally wise, we are sure 
that nothing in the tenure by which 
these lands' are held by Congress can 
forbid their distribution for such a pur- 
pose ; and we can not but hope that 
Congress wiU grant the prayer of Michi- 
gan, and that all the States and all the 
people will approve. Agriculture is our 
weightiest national interest ; and nothing 
will so hasten its development as the 
thorough education of the future farm- 
ers of the country, scientifically and 
practically— just what the directors of 
the State College and farm at Lansing 
intend. — Ed. • ' ' ■ 



Children's Corner.— Where is it? 
If the children can not find it in this 
number, they will in the next. 

Wonder if all the children,, can spell 
wright, right, write, and rite right ; that 
is, wright, a mechanic;, right, not 
wrong ; write, to form letters ; and., rite, 
a ceremony. . . ,. 

One boy and two girls have written 
us solutions' of the conundrum in our 
last, all agreeing that it is American 
Farmers^' Magazine, in which they are 



MONTHLY REVIEW 



121 



AN EXPLANATION. 
Capt. Ralston, owing to unanticipated 
occurrences, has not been able to furnisli 
us the promised article on the horse's 
foot and the requisites for shoeing this 
animal, in time for this number. It may 
be expected in our next. — Ed. 



For the Farmers' Magazine. 

If one end of a piece of wood or metal 
ten feet long, and of equal size from end 
to end, be made fast in a block and 
power applied to the other end so as to 
bend the piece, it will not bend all the 
way alike, but will bend most nearest 
the block. 

Will some of the readers of the Farm- 
ers^ Magazine give me a rule by which 
to find what taper or shape pieces of me- 



tal or timber must have, so that when 
one end is made fast and bending power 
applied to the other end, as above men- 
tioned, the piece will bend all the way 
alike, and make a part of a circle ? If 
such a rule was followed by mechanics, 
it would be the means of saving thou- 
sands of dollars yearly. 

In most machinery I have seen, th« 
builder put more material than was ne* 
cessary, or put some in the wrong place, 
and a break may be the consequence. 
By such a rule much trouble, time, and 
material could be saved. Will some one 
send a rule to the Farmer'' s Magazine 
for publication, and thus confer a favor ? 

Merchant Kelly. 

Bentonville, Ind. 



O '-0 — ^ 



Our own affairs are reasonably prosper- 
ous. We have shouldered pretty heavy 
responsibilities, and launched forth on the 
enterprise of giving our readers a better 
monthly than can be afiforded at the price 
we ask without a larger number of sub- 
scribers than we yet have. We have done 
it with a full determination that, as soon 
as the number will permit, we shall eitlier 
put our price down to one dollar, continu- 
ing the amount of matter about the same 
as now, or enlarge our work to the size of 
the three dollar magazines, and keep the 
price the same as at present — at any rate 
not to be beat in the value of our work, 
nor in the reasonableness of the price. So 
far our experiment is successful. New 
subscribers are coming in daily ; old ones 
are expressing their high approbation; 
and we are satisfied. 

Our readers, during the past month, 
have enjoyed mild, and mostly pleasant 
weather for the care of the homestead and 
and the prosecution of such farm work of 
the old year as may have fallen behind, or 
such as they are pushing on for the new, 
in order to be in readiness for the ensuing 
spring. January, we are sorry to say, has 



done but little to brighten the prospects of 
better prices for general farm produce. 
Cotton is, however, looking up ; and we 
believe that farm produce generally will 
be in better demand soon. But the mar- 
kets for the past few weeks would seem to 
indicate that the farmers of our country 
are to depend rather on good management, 
economy of production, and prudence in 
genei'al expenditures, than on the expec- 
tation of either low prices for labor — a 
thing not on the whole to be desired — or 
extravagantly high prices for produce. 

Of the wide world outside of ourselves 
and our readers, we know less than we 
should, but for the fact that we have been 
intensely busy in our own matters. Our 
own city seems to be the more busy the 
less it has to do ; at least there is more 
running up and down, and men seem in 
greater haste than when business is good. 
It seems that business has to be done at a 
small profit, and so they are practising to 
do the more of it, to make the ends meet. 
In our national character is a great deal of 
tiie Yankee, which will do one thing, if it 
can not do another — do something — make 
a stir at least. And it is well that it is so. 



122 



MONTHLY REVIEW. 



■well that we have the hope and the ener- 
gy, when such a tempest, as that of the 
last four months, has blown over us, not to 
lie down in the furrow, but to try again. 

Great Britain has fought and continues 
to fight bravely in India ; but, as we have 
pretty plainly indicated otherwhere, she 
is tempering victory with less of mercy 
than suits our peace-loving notions. We 
would rather have the honor of taking a 
100 bushels of corn, 40 of wheat, or 400 of 
potatoes from a single acre, than of saturat- 
ing ten acres with even sepoys' blood, es- 
pecially if shed after the fury of battle was 
over. The British Lion is also thundering 
about the walls of Canton. We hope for 
more humanity towards the celestials. 

The monetary panic seems to be over in 
England. Money is there easy, and confi- 
dence is restored. In France, a relapse is 
threatened, but may not come. In Ham- 
burg, where the crisis has been severe, 
things are now easy. 

Present appearances are, that the Mor- 
mons are not yet ready to submit to 
wholesome laws, nor to quit the country, 
but that in conjunction with the Caman- 
ches, Cheyennes, and other Indians, they 
mean to fight, or at least to assume the at- 
titude of resistance, and to make as much 
trouble as they can. 



Markets. — Cotton, at the last moment 
of our going to press, Jan. 2()th, is quoted 
at 10^ for Uplands; 10| to lOf for Gulf 

Flour, from common to good superfine, 

$4 25 to $4 35 ; extra State $4 50 to $4 15 ; 
Southern fancy and extra, $5 to 6 70; 
choice extra family, $6 50 to $8 ; rye, $3 
to $4 ; corn meal, $3 50 ; the grades ,of 



wheat flour range from $4 25 for the low- 
est to $8 for the dearest ; and wheat, per 
bushel, from $1 15 to $1 68 ; rye, from 
70c. to '72c.; buckwheat, from $2 12 to 
$2 25 per 100 lbs. 

Hay, from ordinary to choice. 50c. to 
75c. per 100 lbs. Hops in moderate re- 
quest at 5c. to 10c. per lb. for common to 
best. 

New- York Live Stock Market, Jan. 
20th, 1858. — Average receipts of beeves 
weekly for 1857, 3,143. Receipts last 
week, 3,774. This week, 2,940; less by 
834 than last week, and less by 203 than 
the general average. 

Variations in price according to quality, 
from 6c. to lie. ; average of all sales, from 
8jc. to 8|c. ; average advance this week 
over last, from J to ^ cent per lb. 

The trade in milch cows with calves is 
now (Jan. 20) dull. A fine cow can be 
bought for $40 ; pretty good, from $30 to 
|40, ordinary, from $25 to $30, and re- 
markably good for $50 or less. 

There is not an overstock in the country 
at large, and we are quite confident this 
state of things can not last very long. 

There has been a medium supply of 
sheep and lambs the past week, and prices 
have been slightly advanced. Sales from 
7 c. to 9c. per lb. live weight. 

Arrivals of swine not as numerous as 
last week ; stock nearly all sold, at from 
5c. to 5^c. gross, and 6jc. to 6f c. net, an 
advance of J to ^ cent per lb. for dressed 
swine. 

Reports from the Philadelphia markets 
are not as favorable this week to the farm- 
ing interest as those of this city. 

It would seem by the following from the 
New-York Times as if we were enormous 
meat eaters here in Gotham, and yet it is 
probable that some of our population 
would eat more if they could get it. 



MONTHLY TOTALS. 



Bullocks 
at market. 

January 8,139 

February 6,590 

March 8,513 

April 11,373 

May 9,186 

June 8,564 

July 13,257 

August 9,342 

September 13,923 

October 10,180 

November 8,883 

December 8,596 



Bullocks 


M. Cow3 


Veala 


Sh'p & La's 


Swine 


sold. 


rec'd. 


rec'd. 


rec'd. 


rec'd. 


12,607 


725 


1,200 


28,448 


27,622 


12,182 


985 


1,681 


33,598 


11,800 


12,597 


1,341 


2,448 


21,210 


17,029 


15,105 


1,703 


4,905 


17,401 


26,806 


11,914 


1,475 


4,135 


16,329 


24,894 


10,765 


1,138 


3,808 


30,285 


16,356 


16,503 


1,185 


3,806 


65,492 


15,406 


12,246 


940 


3,263 


46,873 


9,047 


19,279 


1,112 


3,467 


65,284 


18,231 


12,955 


613 


1,794 


44,291 


23,671 


13,221 


688 


1,598 


44,995 


33,501 


12,970 


945 


3,013 


39,830 


64,821 



Total 116,546 162,243 



12,840 34,218 444,036 288,984 



M 



of